Gender

Topic(s)
Gender
Violence - Gender Based Violence
Violence - School-related Gender Based Violence

The impact and experience of emergency situations is profoundly different for girls, women, boys and men. They face different threats and risks, and have different response and coping mechanisms for dealing with the effects of crisis and displacement.

IRC in Syria
© P. Biro, IRC

Emergencies can result in loss of livelihoods and changed social roles. Power dynamics within families, communities and societies are often in flux, and can change women’s and men’s status. In such contexts, educational needs change and different barriers for boys and girls often emerge, with girls usually experiencing greater disadvantage. Four of the five countries with the largest gender gaps in education are conflict affected, and girls in crisis contexts are two and a half times more likely to be out of primary school and 90% more likely to be out of secondary school than their counterparts in more stable settings.

Girls tend to face multiple threats to accessing safe and quality education. These can be directly linked to an emergency, such as targeted attacks on girls’ schools and School-Related Gender-Based Violence and displacement. Threats can also be indirectly linked but exacerbated by an emergency such as early marriage, reduced availability of sexual and reproductive health services, increased disadvantage of girls with disabilities and increased costs of education. As costs rise to send children to school in fragile situations, adolescent girls are particularly disadvantaged, where relative to boys - education is often not considered to be an investment. Men and boys are also exposed to various threats which undermine education opportunities. Conflict can have a greater impact on boys’ education in certain contexts where they are more likely to be recruited into armed forces or pressured to take up paid employment

Shifts in gender roles and relations observed following crises present the opportunity to harness such dynamics and set new precedents for gender equality. Indeed, global research demonstrates that conflict is less likely in contexts where there is gender parity in terms of mean years of schooling  Furthermore, emerging promising practice show that when education is available equitably, is of good quality, relevant, conflict and gender–sensitive it can break cycles of conflict and violence, redefine gender norms and promote tolerance and reconciliation. Global commitments reflect increasing prioritization of gender equality as well as education in conflict and crisis settings through the SDGs, Education 2030 Framework for Action, the World Humanitarian Summit and the 2018 Charlevoix Declaration on Quality Education for Girls, Adolescent Girls and Women in Developing Countries.

Further investment in emerging promising practice on specific strategies to implement gender-responsive EiE is key to enabling children and youth to contribute to promoting peaceful, gender-equal, prosperous societies.

Key Messages

 

This collection was developed with the support of Emilie Rees Smith, Gender, Education and Conflict Specialist at United Nations Girls' Education Initiative. 

Manual/Handbook/Guide

INEE Guidance Note on Gender

Published by
Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE)
United Nations Girls Education Initiative (UNGEI)
Published
Arabic
English
French
Portuguese
Spanish

The INEE Guidance Note on Gender provides strategies to ensure that girls, boys, women, and men in contexts of conflict and crisis equally enjoy the protection and learning outcomes that quality education can provide.

Manual/Handbook/Guide

IASC Gender Handbook for Humanitarian Action

Published by
Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC)
Published
Arabic
English
French
Spanish

Updating the original 2006 handbook, the new version reflects current humanitarian coordination mechanisms and the recent commitment gains towards gender in humanitarian action developed at international fora such as the World Humanitarian Summit, the Grand Bargain and the Sendai Framework Agreement.

Manual/Handbook/Guide

Gender Guidance for the Humanitarian Program Cycle 2018-2020

Published by
United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA)
Published
English

Delivering humanitarian response that meets the needs of women, girls, boys and men remains a priority for all UN Agencies and their partners. This guidance provides a checklist of essential actions for ensuring equitable participation and fair distribution of humanitarian action at each stage of the Humanitarian Program Cycle (HPC).

Other

IASC Gender Equality Measures Tip Sheet

Published by
Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC)
Published
English

This Tip Sheet offers interventions, guiding questions and an example of how 4 Key Gender Equality Measures (GEMs) support gender equality in Education projects and programs. 

Manual/Handbook/Guide

IASC Guidelines for Integrating Gender-Based Violence Interventions in Humanitarian Action

Published by
Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC)
Published
English

The Guidelines for Integrating Gender-Based Violence Interventions in Humanitarian Action were developed to assist humanitarian actors and communities affected by humanitarian emergencies to coordinate, implement, monitor and evaluate essential action for the prevention and mitigation of gender based violence across all sectors of humanitarian action.

Website

CARE Emergency Toolkit: Gender

Published by
CARE
Published
English

This toolkit is an overview of Gender in Emergencies, and includes CARE's key tools such as their Rapid Gender Analysis Toolkit, Gender Marker Toolkit, and CARE's GiB Guidance Note. 

Manual/Handbook/Guide

Toolkit for Promoting Gender Equality in Education

Published by
United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Office (UNESCO)
Published
English

The Toolkit also integrates existing information and tools designed by other national or international organizations dedicated to promoting and providing training on gender equality in education and other sectors.

Policy Document

Addressing the Threats to Girls' Education in Armed Conflict

Published by
United Nations Girls Education Initiative (UNGEI)
Published
English

This policy note contends that greater investment in girls’ education in conflict-affected contexts is urgently required as a critical component of achieving SDGs 4, 5 and 16.

Brochure/Pamphlet

INEE Thematic Issue Brief: Gender

Published by
Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE)
Published
English

While education is both a human right and an indispensable means of realising other human rights, for too long, those affected by humanitarian emergencies have been deprived of education. To ensure that all male and female learners benefit equally from education in emergencies, it is critical to understand the social and gender dynamics that might affect or place constraints on them.

Training Materials

EIE Harmonized Training Module 16: Gender Responsive Education

Published by
Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE)
Published
Arabic
English
French

​​​​​​At the end of this session participants will be able to explain what is meant by gender-responsive education; reflect on needs and challenges and identify best practices of gender-responsive education; practice the ADAPT and ACT Collectively Framework to mainstream gender into education in emergencies; develop gender-responsive strategies that support the INEE Minimum Standards.

Report

Mitigating Threats to Girls' Education in Conflict-Affected Contexts: Current Practice

Published by
Overseas Development Institute (ODI)
United Nations Girls Education Initiative (UNGEI)
Published
English

The report presents a rigorous review that complements existing literature on education in conflict-affected contexts by investigating various barriers and threats girls encounter in accessing education, and by shining a spotlight on practices that have supported girls’ access to education in these contexts. 

Case Study

Education Cluster Thematic Case Study Series

Published by
IASC Global Education Cluster
Published
English

This report explores the experiences of 11 different national Education Clusters surrounding five thematic issues while capturing key lessons learned and examples of good practices.

Report

Gender, Education and Peacebuilding: Brief and Case Studies

Published by
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
Published
English

This brief and associated case studies are intended to inform policy discussions among education and peacebuilding actors on relevant gender considerations across both fields.

Website

Gender Standby Capacity Project (GenCap)

Published by
Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC)
Published
English

GenCap - an IASC initiative created in 2007 in collaboration with the Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) - seeks to facilitate and strengthen capacity and leadership of humanitarians to undertake and promote gender equality programming to ensure the distinct needs of women, girls, boys and men of all ages, are taken into account in humanitarian action at global, regional, and country levels.

Website

Girls' education and gender equality

Published by
Global Partnership for Education (GPE)
Published
English

GPE's Gender Equality Policy and Strategy 2016–2020 reflects a shift from a narrower focus on girls' education to gender equality more broadly, and includes areas where boys are disadvantaged, as well as gender issues concerning teachers, administrators and systems.

Website

United Nations Girls' Education Initiative (UNGEI)

Published by
United Nations Girls Education Initiative (UNGEI)
Published
English

UNGEI strives to promote girls’ education and gender equality through policy advocacy and support to governments and other development actors to deliver on the gender and education-related Sustainable Development Goals.

Website

UNICEF: Girls' Education

Published by
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
Published
English

UNICEF collaborates with partners to develop educational systems that provide the world’s most disadvantaged children with learning opportunities that will change their lives, and the lives of their children, too.

Website

PLAN International: Girls' Education

Published by
Plan International
Published
English

PLAN International aims to provide millions of girls across the word with safe, quality, gender-transformative education so they may find their voices and learn to lead.

Website

Addressing Gender Issues

Published by
Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC)
Published
English

The following page addresses gender issues in education, and how NRC is working to end gender-based violence (GBV) in their day-to-day work. It looks at their projects, and how they are working to strengthen GBV prevention.