Standard 17: Support and Supervision

The support and supervision mechanisms in place for teachers and other education personnel function effectively.

Actions clés

1. Adequate and appropriate resources: Provide enough teaching and learning resources to allow teachers to manage their students’ learning.

Voir la Note d'orientation:

2. Ongoing professional development: Provide teachers and other education personnel with ongoing professional development.

Voir la Note d'orientation:

3. Transparent and effective support mechanisms: Establish and maintain transparent, accountable management and support mechanisms that make it possible to regularly appraise, monitor, and support teachers and other education personnel.

Voir la Note d'orientation:

4. Performance appraisals in place: Ensure that performance appraisals for teachers and other education personnel are a meaningful process.

Voir la Note d'orientation:

5. Mental health and psychosocial support: Ensure that teachers and other education personnel have access to appropriate and practical MHPSS.

Voir la Note d'orientation:

6. Learner feedback: Create regular opportunities for learners to give feedback on teaching and learning and other aspects of their education experience.

Voir la Note d'orientation:

Notes d'orientation
1
Adequate and appropriate resources

Teachers and other education personnel need adequate and appropriate resources to allow them to teach and work effectively. When these resources are not available, teachers may experience more stress and job burnout. Under such conditions, teachers may be able to draw from their own knowledge, or training can be organized on how to adapt materials that are readily available in the environment in a creative and safe way. If a digital approach will be used in a distance education model, a needs assessment will be needed to determine what access learners have to mobile technologies and whether they have electricity, internet connectivity, and the skills to use digital devices. The needs assessment should target parents and caregivers, teachers, and learners and should include questions on any social or cultural sensitivities around access to technology, particularly for women and girls. Learners’ ages and developmental levels will need to be considered when designing both print and digital learning materials to ensure that they are relevant and inclusive (for more guidance, see INEE Background Paper on Distance Education in Emergencies).

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2
Ongoing professional development

Receiving ongoing professional development is key for teachers, as it can improve their ability to deliver quality, safe, and inclusive education. It also can increase their motivation, confidence, and overall wellbeing. Professional development needs to start at the teachers’ level of training and experience. It should be relevant to their needs, delivered by qualified trainers, and inclusive and non-discriminatory. Professional development should include awareness raising and skills building on gender-responsive pedagogy, inclusive education practices, and how to support learners’ psychosocial needs during times of crisis.

Teacher training should be feasible in terms of the logistics, such as venue, timing, frequency, and resources needed, including digital. Stakeholders can put in place a framework for teacher professional development that will help to achieve coherence, consistent quality, and efficient funding. This will help determine the training needs for teachers and other education personnel at different levels and maximize existing materials to support the training. Under-trained and under-qualified teachers should have access to training that pays special attention to the foundational concepts around pedagogy and children’s and young people’s learning and wellbeing. Professional development for these teachers should be followed up with regular training and support to build their skills. Teachers’, head teachers’, and other education personnel’s thoughts and priorities about their own support needs should be at the center of any professional development planning (for more guidance, see Teachers in Crisis Contexts Training for Primary School Teachers).

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3
Transparent and effective support mechanisms

Effective management, supervision, and accountability are important to providing professional support and maintaining teacher motivation and teaching quality. Teachers require ongoing professional support which should be available at different levels, from the learning environment (peers, head teachers, senior teachers, etc.), to education authority support systems (advisors, education specialists, teacher training institutes, etc.). If management and support systems already exist, they should be built on and strengthened as needed. Support systems are likely to operate at different levels—national, sub-national, and local. If no support mechanism systems are in place, education authorities, teachers unions, community members, relevant committees or associations, UN agencies, donors, and NGOs should work together to design and establish them. Higher education institutions may need to give special attention to ensuring that their standard support and supervision structures cover EiE programs and the faculty involved (full-time, part-time, contract-based, or short-term).

To ensure complementarity and avoid confusion or duplication of support systems, all those who provide support should have clear roles, responsibilities, and accountability. Support from peers and communities of practice can motivate teachers and other education personnel and help them improve their teaching practice. They can provide a safe space for teachers to reflect on their work, set goals, and discuss new practices. When face-to-face meetings are not possible, mobile technologies can be useful to promote teacher collaboration and set up professional discussion and support groups (for more guidance, see the Teachers in Crisis Contexts Peer Coaching Pack).

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4
Performance appraisals in place

During emergencies, well-designed and managed performance appraisals support good teacher performance and education quality. Education stakeholders should use existing education authority appraisal frameworks during emergencies when possible, and the appraisal criteria should be transparent and known to the teachers. If an appraisal framework must be developed, it should be clearly linked to the job description and code of conduct. It should include classroom observations of teachers to determine if their practices are inclusive and support the learning of all students. Performance appraisals also should be linked to key safeguarding procedures, including monitoring teachers’ adherence to the code of conduct. After they are observed in the classroom, teachers should be given feedback and the opportunity to discuss what actions they can take to improve their teaching practice, set goals, and establish a time frame for working to reach them.

Assessment of other education personnel can be done by observing them as they carry out a key activity, through a review of their planning, and following up on meetings or classroom observations. A performance appraisal system for teachers and other education personnel should identify key areas to focus on and include self-evaluation.

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5
Mental health and psychosocial support

Any teacher or other education personnel can feel overwhelmed by a crisis. They and their families are likely to have concerns about their own security and safety and uncertainty about the future. How well teachers can support learners will depend on their own wellbeing and the support they receive. Having access to information on what emergency, protection, and safeguarding measures are in place can empower teachers and other education personnel. Holding peer group meetings to discuss and share concerns can also be helpful. Those who support and supervise teachers should be trained in protection and safeguarding, including the do no harm principle, and be familiar with the principles and tools for providing MHPSS. It is also important that non-specialized personnel are recruited and trained to provide individual and group support, and that specialists are on hand to offer MHPSS. Education stakeholders, teachers, and communities should work together to address stigma around mental health issues in culturally appropriate ways, such as sharing information, raising community awareness, and advocacy (for more guidance, see the INEE Guidance Note on Teacher Wellbeing in Emergency Settings).

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6
Learner feedback

It is important to include learners in the evaluation of teaching and learning and to get their feedback on their education experience. Their participation will help them understand the learning environment more fully and contribute to the quality and safety of education. Learner participation is particularly important in tertiary education to ensure that programs meet their current and future needs. Teachers and other education personnel should create a supportive learning environment that encourages learners to share their thoughts on their own learning, the teaching approaches their teacher uses, their own wellbeing, and issues of behavior, protection, safety, and security. Helping young learners share this feedback can be done both in the learning environment and at home using simple questionnaires. Stakeholders should make sure to use child-friendly strategies when engaging children for feedback (see the EiE Glossary for a definition of child-friendly). Engaging learners in the evaluation of teaching and learning will help build their confidence and enable them to understand their strengths, as well as what challenges they face. It will also help teachers reflect on their own practice and strengthen the links between home and the learning environment.

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Supporting Resources

Ressources complémentaires
22 mars 2022 Matériel de formation International Task Force on Teachers for Education 2030, Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture (UNESCO), Institu international pour la plannification de l'éducation de l'UNESCO (UNESCO-IIEP)

Politique et planification enseignantes adaptées aux situations de crise: Module du guide pour l'élaboration d'une politique enseignante

Ce nouveau module a été créé pour promouvoir l’élaboration et la mise en œuvre de politiques enseignantes nationales adaptées aux crises, en reconnaissance du rôle important joué par les enseignants dans la préparation et la réponse aux situations de crise et d’urgence.

30 août 2022 Framework Education International, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organziation (UNESCO)

Global framework of professional teaching standards

The framework on the development of professional teaching standards aims to improve teacher quality, teaching and learning, as well as support the implementation and monitoring of the teacher target in the Education 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and specifically SDG4.

15 août 2022 Background Paper Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE)

INEE Background Paper on Distance Education in Emergencies

This background paper highlights specific challenges, lessons learned, practices, and actions to consider when aiming to provide quality, principles-based distance education (DE) in emergencies. The paper considers inclusion and equity to be key guiding principles for education in general and calls for their application across all education modalities, especially distance education.

24 mai 2022 Manuel/Guide Réseau Inter-agence pour l'éducation en situations d'urgences (INEE)

Note d'orientation sur le bien-être du personnel enseignant dans les situations d'urgence

Cette Note d'orientation alignée sur les Normes minimales de l'INEE est l'occasion de placer le bien-être du personnel enseignant au centre de nos efforts d'intervention et de relèvement dans les situations de conflit et de crise. Parce qu'un investissement dans les enseignants est un investissement dans les enfants et les adolescents, mais aussi parce ils et elles méritent notre attention.

10 octobre 2019 Manuel/Guide Alliance pour la protection des enfants dans l'action humanitaire

Standards minimums pour la protection de l’enfance dans l’action humanitaire (2019)

Les Standards Minimums pour la Protection de l'Enfance dans l'action humanitaire (SMPE) sont devenus l'une des ressources essentielles des travailleurs humanitaires depuis son lancement en 2012.

15 juillet 2014 Manual/Handbook/Guide Global Coalition to Protection Education from Attack (GCPEA)

Protecting Education Personnel from Targeted Attack in Conflict-Affected Countries

The paper addresses the scope and nature of attacks on education personnel and the range of measures put in place to protect them. Many of the measures have not been formally evaluated. Additional research is needed to understand the dynamics of attacks on teachers and how to most effectively protect teachers.

1 janvier 1997 Document de politiques Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture (UNESCO)

Recommandation OIT/UNESCO concernant la condition du personnel enseignant (1966) et Recommandation de l’UNESCO concernant la condition du personnel enseignant de l’enseignement supérieur (1997)

La Recommandation OIT/UNESCO concernant la condition du personnel enseignant (1966) et la Recommandation de l’UNESCO concernant la condition du personnel enseignant de l’enseignement supérieur (1997) sont deux instrument internationaux qui établissent le principe des droits et des responsabilités des éducateurs, du niveau préscolaire jusqu’à l’université.

12 janvier 2018 Manuel/Guide Réseau Inter-agence pour l'éducation en situations d'urgences (INEE)

Kit sur le Coaching par les pairs pour le personnel enseignant en situations de crise

Le kit de coaching par les pairs pour le personnel enseignant en situations de crise (TiCC) apporte un soutien supplémentaire aux enseignants participant à la formation des enseignants du primaire dans les contextes de crise en les préparant à utiliser les cercles d'apprentissage des enseignants (CAE) et les observations en classe.

1 novembre 2020 Training Material
Consortium Partners of Building Resilience: Education Opportunities in Fragile and Crisis Affected Environments (BRICE)

Training Package for Primary School Teachers in Crisis Contexts

This ½-day training (3.5 hours) is designed to build basic competencies around psychosocial support (PSS) and well-being for teachers working in crisis and conflict-affected contexts during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Indicateurs

Untitled Spreadsheet
INEE Domain INEE Standard Indicator/Program Requirements Clarification Numerator Denominator Target Disaggregation Source of Indicator Source of Data Available Tool Crisis Phase
Teachers and Other Education Personnel Recruitment & Selection (TEOP Std 1)

A sufficient number of appropriately qualified teachers and other education personnel are recruited through a participatory and transparent process, based on selection criteria reflecting diversity and equity.
4.1 Education personnel selection process is transparent, based on selection criteria that reflect diversity and equity Scale 1-5 (1 = low, 5 = high) 5 NA New School/program administrative data/documentation Tool required All stages
4.2 Pupil-trained teacher ratio Number of students Number of trained teachers Equal to or below the national average NA UNESCO School/program administrative data No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
4.3 Percentage of male/female teachers/administrators Number of male/female teachers and/or administrators Number of teachers and/or administrators 50% Gender ECW School/program administrative data No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
4.4 Percentage of teachers from minority groups Number of teachers from minority groups Number of teachers To be defined by percentage of minority groups in relevant community Gender
Ethnicity
Mother tongue
Wealth quintile
Disability
Displacement status
As relevant
New School/program administrative data No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
Conditions of Work (TEOP Std 2)

Teachers and other education personnel have clearly defined conditions of work and are appropriately compensated.
4.5 Percentage of targeted learning spaces in which a code of conduct (i) exists (ii) is enforced and (iii) teachers and communities are trained in / informed about its application Measures the application of codes of conduct for teachers and administrators in programs. Codes of conduct are developed locally and should reflect the different contexts of operations, rather than being "one-size-fits-all." Figures can be provided based on surveys or estimates. To qualify, learning spaces should display all of (i), (ii), and (iii).
Number of targeted learning spaces whereby a code of conduct (i) exists, (ii) is enforced, and (iii) teachers and communities are trained in / informed about its application Number of targeted learning spaces 100% Formal vs non-formal ECW School/program administrative data Tool required All stages
4.6 Percentage of teachers receiving equal/equitable compensation (based on gender, ethnicity, religion; pending context) for same position Number of teachers receiving equitable compensation compared to other teachers at the same level Number of teachers at each level 100% Gender
Ethnicity
Mother tongue
Wealth quintile
Disability
Displacement status
As relevant
New School/program administrative data No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
4.7 Percentage of teachers and other education personnel compensated Adequate levels of compensation should be defined by the program Number of teachers and other education personnel compensated Number of teachers and other education personnel 100% Gender
Ethnicity
Mother tongue
Wealth quintile
Disability
Displacement status
As relevant
ECW School/program administrative data No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
4.8 Percentage of teachers and other education personnel who have signed a contract specifying their compensation and conditions of work Numbers of teachers and other education personnel who have signed contracts specifying compensation and conditions of work Number of teachers and other education personnel 100% Gender
Ethnicity
Mother tongue
Wealth quintile
Disability
Displacement status
As relevant
New School/program administrative data, teacher survey No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
4.9 Percentage of teachers supported through coordinated conditions of work across education actors/partners Job descriptions, descriptions of working conditions, and codes of conduct should be included in contracts. These should specify
- job tasks and responsibilities;
- compensation;
- attendance requirements;
- hours and days of work;
- length of contract;
- code of conduct;
- support, supervision and dispute resolution mechanisms.
Number of teachers supported through coordinated conditions of work across education actors/partners Number of teachers 100% Gender
Ethnicity
Mother tongue
Wealth quintile
Disability
Displacement status
As relevant
New School/program administrative data, teacher survey No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
4.10 Percentage of targeted learning spaces that have clear disciplinary actions in place for teachers, school leaders, and administrators who have broken the code of conduct Number of targeted learning spaces that have clear disciplinary actions in place for teachers, school leaders, and administrators who have broken the code of conduct
Number of targeted learning spaces 100% Formal vs non-formal ECW School/program administrative data, teacher survey No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
4.11 Percentage of teachers supported through coordinated compensation agreements across education actors/partners Number of teachers supported through coordinated compensation agreements across education actors/partners Number of teachers 100% Gender
Ethnicity
Mother tongue
Wealth quintile
Disability
Displacement status
As relevant
New School/program administrative data, teacher survey No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
Support & Supervision (TEOP Std 3)

Support and supervision mechanisms for teachers and other education personnel function effectively.
4.12 Percentage of teachers who report having adequate teaching and learning materials and teaching and preparation space Number of teachers who report having adequate teaching and learning materials and teaching space Number of teachers 100% Gender New Teacher survey No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
4.13 Percentage of teachers reporting being sufficiently supported by school leadership Number of teachers who report being sufficiently supported by school leadership Number of teachers 100% Gender New Teacher survey No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
4.14 Percentage of teaching personnel participating in collaborative opportunities with other teachers/administrators Number of teaching personnel participating in collaborative opportunities with other teachers/administrators Number of teachers 100% Gender New School/program administrative data, teacher survey No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
4.15 Percentage of teaching personnel participating in ongoing coaching/mentoring sessions Ongoing support differentiates from one-off training sessions Number of teaching personnel participating in ongoing coaching/mentoring sessions Number of teachers 100% Gender TiCC School/program administrative data, teacher survey No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
4.16 Percentage of teachers who report having sufficient planning time Number of teachers who report having sufficient planning time Number of teachers 100% Gender Modified TiCC Teacher survey No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
4.17 Percentage of teaching personnel evaluated/supported through transparent performance appraisal process Number of teaching personnel evaluated/supported through transparent performance appraisal process Number of teachers 100% Gender Modified TiCC School/program administrative data, teacher survey No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages