Standard 16: Conditions of Work

Teachers and other education personnel have clearly defined conditions of work and receive appropriate compensation.

Actions clés

1. Coordination of compensation and conditions of work: Coordinate compensation systems and conditions of work for all teachers and other education personnel.

Voir la Note d'orientation:

2. Contracts in place: Establish compensation and working conditions in contracts, and ensure that staff members are compensated regularly.

Voir la Note d'orientation:

3. Right to organize: Allow teachers and other education personnel to organize to negotiate the terms and conditions of their employment.

Voir la Note d'orientation:

4. Codes of conduct: Include clear implementation guidelines in teachers’ codes of conduct and ensure that they are adhered to by all.

Voir la Note d'orientation:

Notes d'orientation
1
Conditions of work

In situations of crisis or displacement, systems for compensating teachers and other education personnel may be disrupted. Payroll systems may break down or become ineffective, teachers displaced within their home country may be unable to get their wages, and refugee teachers and schools may not be formally recognized by the host country education authorities and thus will be ineligible for payment. It is important for education stakeholders to work together to develop an appropriate, equitable, and sustainable system for identifying and compensating teachers.

Primary responsibility for employing and compensating teachers and other education personnel lies with education authorities. If education authorities are unable to fulfill this role, other stakeholders may take it on temporarily. They can do it directly or by supporting national or sub-national education authorities. If teachers are employed by a range of stakeholders, such as communities, UN agencies, donors, NGOs, and other agencies, they will need to work together to establish a fair level of compensation that is in line with national policies and frameworks, is sustainable, and based on an exit strategy. This will pave the way for future sustainable compensation policies and practices.

Compensation can be monetary (salaries and stipends or incentives) or non-monetary (in-kind payment such as food, shelter, health care, and transportation). Whatever form it takes, compensation should enable teachers and other education personnel to focus on teaching without taking on additional employment and reflect their qualifications, experience, and responsibilities. This will help avoid conflicts of interest, such as teachers privately charging students fees for teaching and tutoring. Teacher compensation during an emergency should be based on demand, the cost of living, and wages paid to similar professionals, such as those in health care, in the private sector, or working across borders (for more guidance see, Minimum Economic Recovery Standards, Employment Standards).

Stipends and incentives are a form of payment usually associated with training or on-the-job learning prior to full qualification, for example teaching assistants or unqualified teachers. They are often lower than permanent salary levels for similar work by qualified individuals and are complemented by other benefits, such as training, food, and accommodation allowances.

Teachers and other education personnel should be compensated regularly and should not have to travel any great distance to collect their pay. In some cases, CVA may be used to support education services by providing teacher incentives. If CVA is being used in this way, stakeholders should be aware of the risks involved in implementing cash-based assistance and take steps to mitigate them. Dispute mechanisms should be in place to address grievances that arise if contractual obligations are ignored, or if compensation is withheld or frequently delayed (for more guidance, see INEE Guidance Notes on Teacher Compensation).

In some contexts, refugees may face legal restrictions to work, and thus it may be necessary to advocate and collaborate with policy-makers to address these restrictions. Education stakeholders should work together to establish a clear pathway for career progression that acknowledges teachers' professional growth and promotes their job satisfaction and retention. This may require collaboration with teacher unions, education authorities, and other stakeholders to ensure that refugee teachers' rights are upheld and their contributions are recognized.

The conditions of work for teachers and other education personnel are also important. The ILO defines this as a broad issue that includes compensation, manageable class size, professional education and development, and supervision and support. It also addresses teachers’ involvement in the reform of education policies and programs; the provision of basic facilities in classrooms; adequate equipment, learning materials, and supplies; and the maintenance of school buildings. Conditions of work for teachers must include access to safe and appropriate sanitation and hygiene facilities and access to safe drinking water. Teachers from vulnerable groups may need specific WASH, transportation, and protection support. Education stakeholders should coordinate with the relevant sectors to provide this holistic support.

There should be no discrimination in compensation or working conditions. Measures should be in place to prevent harassment or discrimination, and mechanisms must be in place to report any abuse. It is important that teachers know how to use these mechanisms and are safe when doing so. Education stakeholders should collaborate to ensure that conditions of work are harmonized between the different actors that employ teachers and that they reflect the practices of the education authorities (for more guidance, see INEE Guidance Note on Gender)

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2
Contracts in place

In most contexts, a contract gives teachers and other education personnel a legally binding document that provides some employment security and helps to professionalize their role in the schools and in the community. Contracts should include a job description and list teachers’ key roles and responsibilities, conditions of employment, attendance requirements, working hours, contract length, the code of conduct, support and management systems, and dispute resolution systems. Teacher safety should always be an important consideration in a contract, which also should establish what compensation teachers will receive, both monetary and non-monetary, and include salary review mechanisms. If teachers and other education personnel have to change their location, those who employ them should consider offering extra compensation, such as accommodation and transportation costs. If it is not possible to issue a contract in a given operating context, employers can explore what written documentation they can provide in place of a contract, such as a letter of commitment.

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3
Right to organize

Two UNESCO/ILO recommendations related to teaching and education express the rights of teachers and other education personnel to the freedom of association, to organize, and to negotiate their terms and conditions of employment. The ILO refers to any type of negotiation, consultation, or exchange of information between government representatives, employers, and workers as social dialogue. Teachers and other education personnel, like all other public workers, should be involved in any such social dialogue, in keeping with national traditions and context.

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4
Codes of conduct

A code of conduct sets clear standards of behavior for teachers and other education personnel. The standards set out in a code should apply to the learning environment and to education-related events and activities. There should be clear consequences for people who do not adhere to them. It is important that teachers and other education personnel receive training in the code of conduct. This should take place before a contract is signed to ensure that the potential employee understands and agrees to follow the code. The code should be reviewed every year to make sure it is still pertinent. A code of conduct includes a commitment to do the following:

  • Respect, protect, and fulfill the education rights of learners
  • Maintain high standards of conduct and ethical behavior
  • Remove barriers to education and create a non-discriminatory environment for all learners
  • Maintain a safe, protective, and inclusive environment free from sexual, gender-based and other forms of violence, harassment, exploitation, intimidation, violence, and discrimination
  • Promote the physical and psychosocial wellbeing of learners and all education personnel
  • Reflect and support learners’ diversity in teaching approaches and classroom interactions
  • Avoid teaching or encouraging knowledge or actions that contradict human rights or non-discrimination principles
  • Participate in professional development
  • Safeguard children and young people and report any concerns in this regard (for more guidance, see Minimum Standards for Child Protection, Standard 23)
  • Work collaboratively with other teachers and education personnel
  • Establish and maintain professional relationships with learners’ parents and caregivers
  • Maintain regular attendance and punctuality

An example of a code of conduct is given in the Teachers in Crisis Contexts Training for Primary School Teachers.

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Supporting Resources

Ressources complémentaires
22 mars 2022 Matériel de formation International Task Force on Teachers for Education 2030, Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture (UNESCO), Institu international pour la plannification de l'éducation de l'UNESCO (UNESCO-IIEP)

Politique et planification enseignantes adaptées aux situations de crise: Module du guide pour l'élaboration d'une politique enseignante

Ce nouveau module a été créé pour promouvoir l’élaboration et la mise en œuvre de politiques enseignantes nationales adaptées aux crises, en reconnaissance du rôle important joué par les enseignants dans la préparation et la réponse aux situations de crise et d’urgence.

30 août 2022 Framework Education International, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organziation (UNESCO)

Global framework of professional teaching standards

The framework on the development of professional teaching standards aims to improve teacher quality, teaching and learning, as well as support the implementation and monitoring of the teacher target in the Education 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and specifically SDG4.

9 juillet 2019 Manuel/Guide Réseau Inter-agence pour l'éducation en situations d'urgences (INEE), Initiative des Nations Unies pour l'éducation des filles (UNGEI)

Note d’orientation de l’INEE sur le Genre

La Note d’orientation de l’INEE sur le Genre explique comment dispenser un enseignement en tenant compte du genre, à toute personne impliquée dans l’éducation dans les situations d’urgence (EIE) dans le cadre d’une préparation, d’une intervention ou d’un rétablissement d’urgence.

1 mars 2009 Manuel/Guide Réseau Inter-agence pour l'éducation en situations d'urgences (INEE)

Notes d’orientation de l’INEE sur la rémunération des enseignants dans les états fragiles, les situations de déplacement etde réadaptation post-crise

Les Notes d’orientation de l’INEE sur la rémunération des enseignants dans les États fragiles, les situations de déplacement et de réadaptation post-crise (Notes d’orientation de l’INEE) ont été développées dans le but de relever ce défi crucial que représente une éducation de qualité.

24 mai 2022 Manuel/Guide Réseau Inter-agence pour l'éducation en situations d'urgences (INEE)

Note d'orientation sur le bien-être du personnel enseignant dans les situations d'urgence

Cette Note d'orientation alignée sur les Normes minimales de l'INEE est l'occasion de placer le bien-être du personnel enseignant au centre de nos efforts d'intervention et de relèvement dans les situations de conflit et de crise. Parce qu'un investissement dans les enseignants est un investissement dans les enfants et les adolescents, mais aussi parce ils et elles méritent notre attention.

5 avril 2017 Manuel/Guide
Réseau SEEP

Normes Minimales pour le Relèvement Économique

Le MERS offre des outils aux agences humanitaires, aux organisations intergouvernementales, aux populations locales et aux départements gouvernementaux pour améliorer l'efficacité et la qualité de l'aide économique offerte, et ainsi faire une différence significative dans la vie des personnes touchées par les catastrophes

1 janvier 1997 Document de politiques Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture (UNESCO)

Recommandation OIT/UNESCO concernant la condition du personnel enseignant (1966) et Recommandation de l’UNESCO concernant la condition du personnel enseignant de l’enseignement supérieur (1997)

La Recommandation OIT/UNESCO concernant la condition du personnel enseignant (1966) et la Recommandation de l’UNESCO concernant la condition du personnel enseignant de l’enseignement supérieur (1997) sont deux instrument internationaux qui établissent le principe des droits et des responsabilités des éducateurs, du niveau préscolaire jusqu’à l’université.

30 août 2017 Training Material Save the Children

School Code of Conduct Teacher Training Manual

The School Code of Conduct (SCOC) training programme is designed to be used by Save the Children education staff to enable teachers and education personnel to implement governmental Teachers’ Codes of Conduct (TCOC) in schools. The training content relates to development and emergency contexts; to immediate and post conflict settings; and in response to natural disasters.

24 mars 2016 Manuel/Guide Réseau Inter-agence pour l'éducation en situations d'urgences (INEE)

Kit de formation pour les enseignants en situations de crise

Le kit de formation pour les enseignants du primaire en situations de crise, publié en mars 2016, vise à renforcer les compétences pédagogiques de base des enseignants non qualifiés ou sous-qualifiés, souvent recrutés pour enseigner dans les camps de réfugiés et de déplacés internes, et dans d'autres contextes d’urgence.

Indicateurs

Untitled Spreadsheet
INEE Domain INEE Standard Indicator/Program Requirements Clarification Numerator Denominator Target Disaggregation Source of Indicator Source of Data Available Tool Crisis Phase
Teachers and Other Education Personnel Recruitment & Selection (TEOP Std 1)

A sufficient number of appropriately qualified teachers and other education personnel are recruited through a participatory and transparent process, based on selection criteria reflecting diversity and equity.
4.1 Education personnel selection process is transparent, based on selection criteria that reflect diversity and equity Scale 1-5 (1 = low, 5 = high) 5 NA New School/program administrative data/documentation Tool required All stages
4.2 Pupil-trained teacher ratio Number of students Number of trained teachers Equal to or below the national average NA UNESCO School/program administrative data No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
4.3 Percentage of male/female teachers/administrators Number of male/female teachers and/or administrators Number of teachers and/or administrators 50% Gender ECW School/program administrative data No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
4.4 Percentage of teachers from minority groups Number of teachers from minority groups Number of teachers To be defined by percentage of minority groups in relevant community Gender
Ethnicity
Mother tongue
Wealth quintile
Disability
Displacement status
As relevant
New School/program administrative data No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
Conditions of Work (TEOP Std 2)

Teachers and other education personnel have clearly defined conditions of work and are appropriately compensated.
4.5 Percentage of targeted learning spaces in which a code of conduct (i) exists (ii) is enforced and (iii) teachers and communities are trained in / informed about its application Measures the application of codes of conduct for teachers and administrators in programs. Codes of conduct are developed locally and should reflect the different contexts of operations, rather than being "one-size-fits-all." Figures can be provided based on surveys or estimates. To qualify, learning spaces should display all of (i), (ii), and (iii).
Number of targeted learning spaces whereby a code of conduct (i) exists, (ii) is enforced, and (iii) teachers and communities are trained in / informed about its application Number of targeted learning spaces 100% Formal vs non-formal ECW School/program administrative data Tool required All stages
4.6 Percentage of teachers receiving equal/equitable compensation (based on gender, ethnicity, religion; pending context) for same position Number of teachers receiving equitable compensation compared to other teachers at the same level Number of teachers at each level 100% Gender
Ethnicity
Mother tongue
Wealth quintile
Disability
Displacement status
As relevant
New School/program administrative data No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
4.7 Percentage of teachers and other education personnel compensated Adequate levels of compensation should be defined by the program Number of teachers and other education personnel compensated Number of teachers and other education personnel 100% Gender
Ethnicity
Mother tongue
Wealth quintile
Disability
Displacement status
As relevant
ECW School/program administrative data No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
4.8 Percentage of teachers and other education personnel who have signed a contract specifying their compensation and conditions of work Numbers of teachers and other education personnel who have signed contracts specifying compensation and conditions of work Number of teachers and other education personnel 100% Gender
Ethnicity
Mother tongue
Wealth quintile
Disability
Displacement status
As relevant
New School/program administrative data, teacher survey No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
4.9 Percentage of teachers supported through coordinated conditions of work across education actors/partners Job descriptions, descriptions of working conditions, and codes of conduct should be included in contracts. These should specify
- job tasks and responsibilities;
- compensation;
- attendance requirements;
- hours and days of work;
- length of contract;
- code of conduct;
- support, supervision and dispute resolution mechanisms.
Number of teachers supported through coordinated conditions of work across education actors/partners Number of teachers 100% Gender
Ethnicity
Mother tongue
Wealth quintile
Disability
Displacement status
As relevant
New School/program administrative data, teacher survey No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
4.10 Percentage of targeted learning spaces that have clear disciplinary actions in place for teachers, school leaders, and administrators who have broken the code of conduct Number of targeted learning spaces that have clear disciplinary actions in place for teachers, school leaders, and administrators who have broken the code of conduct
Number of targeted learning spaces 100% Formal vs non-formal ECW School/program administrative data, teacher survey No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
4.11 Percentage of teachers supported through coordinated compensation agreements across education actors/partners Number of teachers supported through coordinated compensation agreements across education actors/partners Number of teachers 100% Gender
Ethnicity
Mother tongue
Wealth quintile
Disability
Displacement status
As relevant
New School/program administrative data, teacher survey No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
Support & Supervision (TEOP Std 3)

Support and supervision mechanisms for teachers and other education personnel function effectively.
4.12 Percentage of teachers who report having adequate teaching and learning materials and teaching and preparation space Number of teachers who report having adequate teaching and learning materials and teaching space Number of teachers 100% Gender New Teacher survey No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
4.13 Percentage of teachers reporting being sufficiently supported by school leadership Number of teachers who report being sufficiently supported by school leadership Number of teachers 100% Gender New Teacher survey No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
4.14 Percentage of teaching personnel participating in collaborative opportunities with other teachers/administrators Number of teaching personnel participating in collaborative opportunities with other teachers/administrators Number of teachers 100% Gender New School/program administrative data, teacher survey No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
4.15 Percentage of teaching personnel participating in ongoing coaching/mentoring sessions Ongoing support differentiates from one-off training sessions Number of teaching personnel participating in ongoing coaching/mentoring sessions Number of teachers 100% Gender TiCC School/program administrative data, teacher survey No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
4.16 Percentage of teachers who report having sufficient planning time Number of teachers who report having sufficient planning time Number of teachers 100% Gender Modified TiCC Teacher survey No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
4.17 Percentage of teaching personnel evaluated/supported through transparent performance appraisal process Number of teaching personnel evaluated/supported through transparent performance appraisal process Number of teachers 100% Gender Modified TiCC School/program administrative data, teacher survey No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages