Standard 14: Training, Professional Development, and Support

Teachers and other education personnel receive regular, relevant, and structured training in line with their needs and circumstances.

Key Actions

1. Opportunities for training and professional development: Provide all teachers with access to training and professional development opportunities in accordance with their needs.

See Guidance Notes:

2. Appropriate training: Design training and professional development so that it is appropriate to the context and reflects the learning content and objectives.

See Guidance Notes:

3. Training in risk prevention and mitigation: Provide teachers in both formal and non-formal education with training and professional development that includes hazard awareness and DRR.

See Guidance Notes:

4. Qualified trainers: Use qualified trainers or senior school staff members to carry out training courses and ongoing school-based professional development for teachers and other education personnel.

See Guidance Notes:

5. Training recognition and accreditation: Ensure that teacher training and certified professional development is recognized and approved by education authorities.

See Guidance Notes:

6. Professional development in using digital approaches: Provide teachers with professional development to give them more confidence in using digital resources, particularly for distance education.

See Guidance Notes:

7. Ongoing professional support: Promote teacher collaboration to ensure that teachers are supported by their peers and their head teachers, in addition to an integrated support system outside the immediate learning environment.

See Guidance Notes:

Guidance Notes
1
Opportunities for training and professional development

Emergencies may require teachers to learn new content and teaching methodologies. If a crisis has created a demand for additional teachers, such as in situations of displacement, a condensed and targeted teacher training program might be needed. National authorities have the ultimate responsibility for training and professional development standards, policies, and services for teachers engaged in the national education system. The implementing agencies and communities that directly engage teachers should align their support with national standards as much as possible. Training and professional development opportunities should be available to all teachers and other education personnel, regardless of gender, ethnicity, religion, age, or contractual or legal status.

The need for teacher training may be significant during an emergency. Education actors should consider the following when assessing the need, planning, and support for training and professional development:

  • Coordination and collaboration: When possible, national authorities should lead training and professional development efforts, in collaboration with the inter-agency coordination mechanism. All implementing agencies should coordinate training opportunities to ensure greater consistency. Assessments carried out by various stakeholders should be coordinated to guide training needs. 
  • Prioritize training participants: All teachers will require training to ensure that they have the skills needed to respond to learners’ changing needs. Training plans should be created as soon as possible after a crisis for the teachers with the greatest need, such as those on the front lines, new teachers, and teachers welcoming refugee learners. Plans should be based on an understanding of teachers’ needs in different situations, such as new and inexperienced teachers and those with previous training or experience. Plans also should reflect the learners’ changing needs in a new learning environment, such as MHPSS, working with larger or mixed groups, and learning in a new language.
  • Inclusive opportunities are essential: Professional development opportunities should be flexible enough to accommodate the teachers and other education personnel who may need additional support to attend training sessions. This may include female teachers in contexts where women have historically been excluded from education and teachers with disabilities. Examples of targeted support may include providing flexible training schedules, child care, and safe transportation to and from training sites.
  • Training and professional development modalities: Pre-service and in-service training opportunities are important in emergencies. Condensing pre-service training can speed up the preparation of the new teachers needed to respond to the specific needs of an emergency. In-service training is more often provided during the early stages of an emergency response to orient teachers to the specific content. Training opportunities should account for different factors, such as teachers’ safety and ability to travel to learning sites, and the available technology. In-person, online, individual, and group teacher training options may all be appropriate. Teacher training during emergencies should be part of longer-term support, and one-off training with no follow up or continued support should be avoided.

Supporting teachers after training: Head teachers should play a key role in their teachers’ professional development. This should include providing opportunities for school-based training and drawing from the expertise of school staff members, those from a nearby school, or from the community. The creative use of mentors, peer learning, and support programs can provide another layer of sustained support (for more guidance, see Teachers in Crisis Contexts Training for Primary School Teachers; INEE Guidance Notes on Teaching and Learning).

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2
Appropriate training

Teaching during emergencies requires specific skills and knowledge. Education authorities are responsible for developing and delivering formal training curriculum and content, while their partners, such as UN agencies, NGOs, and the private sector, can offer support. Stakeholders may need to review and adapt curricula for pre-service programs to ensure that current and future training prepares teachers to meet the specific needs of learners in emergencies. Special concerns may include MHPSS, SEL, health, and protection related content, and issues related to DRR and climate change.

It is particularly important to make sure that training addresses diversity and discrimination. Teachers should be helped to identify and address stereotypes, bias, or prejudice in the curriculum and to promote inclusivity, respect, and nonviolence. Teachers should be confident and competent in discussing these issues with learners, as well as concepts, principles, and practices related to human rights. Those working with teachers to address bias in the curriculum should recognize that some issues may be challenging for the teachers themselves. They should allow time for discussion and emphasize the important role teachers play in promoting diversity and inclusion. Teachers of all genders should be trained to use disability-inclusive and gender-responsive teaching practices. The approaches used in training can model practices and strategies for addressing gender-based discrimination directly, for example, identifying and addressing harmful gender norms and stereotypes (for more guidance, see INEE Guidance Note on Conflict Sensitive Education; INEE Guidance Note on Gender).

Other areas for teacher professional development can include:

  • Pedagogy and subject matter
    • Literacy, numeracy, and subject area
    • Formative and summative learner assessment
    • Teaching methods and approaches, including inclusive and diverse approaches and classroom management
    • Teaching for specific age and developmental groups, including early and older learners
  • Creating and supporting an inclusive classroom
    • Identifying and addressing curriculum bias and discrimination
    • Supporting learners with disabilities
    • Using content and methodologies that acknowledge and celebrate diversity
    • Teaching the conflict-resolution and peacebuilding skills needed to navigate challenges in the classroom and to teach learners those same skills.
  • Skills and knowledge to mitigate and prevent abuse or provide protection
  • Supporting learners beyond the classroom
    • Engaging parents and caregivers and the community in the learning process
    • Providing specific training for school leaders related to professional support for school staff and quality assurance
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3
Training in risk prevention and mitigation

Teachers should receive training to develop the knowledge and skills they will need to reduce the risks that learners and the community may face. Head teachers and teachers and other education personnel can play an important role in making learners aware of hazards and risks at school and beyond and in teaching them safe practices for dealing with what they encounter. Teachers should have information that helps them to identify, prevent, and deal with potential hazards and risks they and their learners might face (for more guidance, see Comprehensive School Safety Framework; Supporting Integrated Child Protection and Education Programming in Humanitarian Action).

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4
Qualified trainers

Education stakeholders should identify qualified local trainers to help develop and implement appropriate training for teachers and other education personnel.  Qualified trainers from the context and external stakeholders can engage in capacity sharing activities to create a mutual understanding of the challenges to teaching and learning at all stages of an emergency, from preparedness through to recovery. Stakeholders should make the effort to identify and engage a diverse group of qualified trainers. They should be aware of potential gender and cultural sensitivities and group trainers with teachers accordingly. Trainers' demographics should reflect those of the teachers they are working with.

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5
Training recognition and accreditation

It is important that education authorities recognize and approve the teacher training and certified professional development provided during emergencies. Their approval and accreditation should ensure the quality of all teacher training. Education authorities in the host or home country should make sure that training for refugee teachers is relevant and adapted to the teachers’ and the learners’ needs. Regional qualifications frameworks, such as the Djibouti Declaration on Refugee Education adopted by the Intergovernmental Authority on Development in 2017,  are important tools for supporting the equivalency of qualifications within and across borders. They can help to promote the inclusion of refugee teachers in national education systems and support the recognition of their professional development and certifications.

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6
Professional development in using digital approaches

Teachers and other education personnel will likely need professional development and training in using digital and technology-based teaching and learning approaches. Teachers will need guidance on using technology to support children’s learning in crisis contexts, whether they use distance, face-to-face, or hybrid delivery. Education stakeholders can engage expert trainers, where they are available, to help teachers with less digital competence or confidence. Confident users of technology can be paired or grouped, virtually and in person, with those who are less confident. Training should highlight how resources can vary, from low-tech (print, audio, television) to high-tech (mobile phones, online, interactive), and how to use each technology effectively. Most learners, even in higher education, will need support in using digital approaches, especially if engaged in distance education. Parents and caregivers and older siblings can be important sources of support in any distance education model, but the amount of support they are expected to provide should be reasonable. Parents and caregivers should be given clear guidance on their roles and responsibilities.

Education actors should carefully consider how to deliver distance education so that all children and young people will have access to learning during emergencies. It is important to weigh the benefits and challenges of using digital approaches, and education stakeholders must ensure that these approaches protect learners’ and teachers’ digital safety and promote their wellbeing (for more guidance, see INEE Background Paper on Distance Education in Emergencies).

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7
Ongoing professional support

Teachers and other education personnel should have ongoing and relevant professional support. Within the immediate learning environment, support should be provided by peers, senior teachers, and head teachers. Head teachers can make teachers aware of the value of communities of practice, teacher learning circles, peer support groups, and other forms of teacher collaboration that can supplement the existing formal support.

Having professional development and ongoing professional support will make a difference to teachers’ overall wellbeing in emergency settings. Although most teachers are resourceful and resilient and often can support their own wellbeing, they also are often exposed to the same adverse events and stressors as their learners. This makes support from their peers and managers especially important. Stakeholders managing teachers should provide opportunities for teachers to meet informally and share what they are doing, how they are feeling, and what strategies they use to stay resilient and resourceful. If a teacher does become distressed and feels unable to cope, especially if it is affecting their teaching, the head teacher, professional support staff, and other local partners should make sure the teacher receives the help they need, including MHPSS services (for more guidance, see INEE Guidance Note on Teacher Wellbeing in Emergency Settings).

During emergencies, teachers need a strong, cohesive system of professional support beyond the immediate learning environment. It is important that the various stakeholders who fund and manage teachers work together to ensure the provision of consistent professional support. The roles, responsibilities, and line management of key education personnel should be clear and complementary. A regular needs analysis should take place and guide planning for teacher professional development support (for more guidance, see INEE Teachers in Crisis Contexts Peer Coaching Pack).

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Supporting Resources

Supporting Resources
30 June 2022 Manual/Handbook/Guide Global Alliance for Disaster Risk Reduction and Resilience in the Education Sector (GADRRRES)

Comprehensive School Safety Framework 2022-2030

The CSSF 2022-2030 is an all-hazards, all-risks approach to protecting children and education, offering governments a practical framework to make urgent progress across a multitude of children’s rights and the sustainable development agenda.

14 September 2022 Manual/Handbook/Guide Education Cannot Wait (ECW), Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE), United Nations Girls Education Initiative (UNGEI)

EiE-GenKit

The EiE-GenKit is a core resource package for gender in education in emergencies. The EiE-GenKit is the first resource of its kind, providing education practitioners with practical tools to promote gender-responsive programming  from crisis to peace and sustainable development.

1 July 2023 Toolkit Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE)

Inclusive Distance Education Toolkit

The Inclusive Distance Education Toolkit compiles resources on: inclusive education, education in emergencies, disability inclusive education, and distance education across the humanitarian-development nexus.

15 August 2022 Background Paper Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE)

INEE Background Paper on Distance Education in Emergencies

This background paper highlights specific challenges, lessons learned, practices, and actions to consider when aiming to provide quality, principles-based distance education (DE) in emergencies. The paper considers inclusion and equity to be key guiding principles for education in general and calls for their application across all education modalities, especially distance education.

24 May 2022 Manual/Handbook/Guide Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE)

Guidance Note on Teacher Wellbeing in Emergency Settings

This INEE Minimum Standards-aligned Guidance Note is an opportunity to put teacher wellbeing at the center of our response and recovery efforts in conflict and crisis affected settings. Not just because an investment in teachers is an investment in children and adolescents, but because at this moment in history teachers deserve our unparalleled attention as an end unto itself. 

1 March 2013 Manual/Handbook/Guide Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE)

INEE Guidance Note on Conflict Sensitive Education

Building upon the INEE Minimum Standards, the INEE Guidance Note on Conflict Sensitive Education offers strategies for developing and implementing conflict sensitive education (CSE) programmes and policies.

9 July 2019 Manual/Handbook/Guide Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE), United Nations Girls Education Initiative (UNGEI)

INEE Guidance Note on Gender

The INEE Guidance Note on Gender provides strategies to ensure that girls, boys, women, and men in contexts of conflict and crisis equally enjoy the protection and learning outcomes that quality education can provide.

29 June 2018 Manual/Handbook/Guide Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE)

INEE Guidance Note on Psychosocial Support

The purpose of the INEE Guidance Note on Psychosocial Support is to clarify the importance of supporting the psychosocial wellbeing of children and youth, and to offer specific strategies for how to incorporate psychosocial support (PSS) into education responses.

30 June 2010 Manual/Handbook/Guide Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE)

INEE Guidance Notes on Teaching and Learning

The INEE Guidance Notes on Teaching and Learning and accompanying Resource Pack build on the INEE Minimum Standards and articulate good practice on critical issues related to curricula adaptation and development; teacher training, professional development and support; instruction and learning processes; and the assessment of learning outcomes.

5 December 2022 Manual/Handbook/Guide Alliance for Child Protection in Humanitarian Action, Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE)

Supporting Integrated Child Protection and Education Programming in Humanitarian Action

This guidance note by INEE and the Alliance aims to promote integration and collaboration across the two humanitarian sectors of education and child protection. It orients stakeholders in both sectors to principles, frameworks, opportunities, and resources for program integration in order to ensure efficient, targeted, and effective interventions that result in improved outcomes for children and young people.

12 January 2018 Manual/Handbook/Guide Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE)

Teachers in Crisis Contexts Peer Coaching

The Teachers in Crisis Contexts (TiCC) Peer Coaching pack provides an additional layer of support for teachers participating in the Training for Primary School Teachers in Crisis Contexts by preparing teachers to use Teacher Learning Circles (TLCs) and Classroom Observations.

Indicators

Untitled Spreadsheet
INEE Domain INEE Standard Indicator/Program Requirements Clarification Numerator Denominator Target Disaggregation Source of Indicator Source of Data Available Tool Crisis Phase
Teaching and Learning Curricula (T&L Std 1)

Culturally, socially and linguistically relevant curricula are used to provide formal and non-formal education, appropriate to the particular context and needs of learners.
3.1 Pupil-textbook ratio Number of students Number of textbooks 1:1 Level of education
Gender
Ethnicity
Mother tongue
Wealth quintile
Disability
Displacement status
As relevant
New School administrative data Right to Education Monitoring Guide All stages
3.2 Percentage of targeted learning spaces whose learning materials meet minimum quality standards Curricula, textbooks, and other learning materials should be inclusive, conflict-sensitive, gender-transformative, promote SEL and PSS, etc. Number of targeted learning spaces where learning materials meet minimum standards of quality Number of targeted learning spaces 100% Formal vs non-formal New Learning material analysis Tool required All stages
3.3 Percentage of students in the right grade for their age Number of students at a grade level appropriate to within one year of their age Number students 100% Level of education
Gender
Ethnicity
Mother tongue
Wealth quintile
Disability
Displacement status
As relevant
New School administrative data No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
3.4 Percentage of targeted crisis-affected children and youth benefiting from relevant skills development (SEL / PSS / risk awareness / environmental education / conflict prevention) Number of targeted crisis-affected children and youth benefiting from relevant skills development (SEL/PSS/risk awareness/ environmental education/conflict prevention) Number of identified crisis-affected children and youth needing relevant skills development (SEL/PSS/risk awareness/ environmental education/conflict prevention) 100% Level of education
Gender
Ethnicity
Mother tongue
Wealth quintile
Disability
Displacement status
As relevant
New Learning outcome measures Tool required All stages
3.5 Percentage of targeted learning spaces utilizing curriculum aligned to national standards In formal settings, the national curriculum should be used. In non-formal settings, the curriculum should be appropriate and compatible with the national curriculum. Number of targeted learning spaces utilizing curriculum aligned to national standards
Number of targeted learning spaces
100% Formal vs non-formal New Program documentation Tool required All stages
Training, Professional Development and Support (T&L Std 2)

Teachers and other education personnel receive periodic, relevant and structured training according to needs and circumstances.
3.6 Percentage of teachers who show increased understanding of and practice Teacher’s Role & Well-being; Child Protection, Well-being; Inclusion; Pedagogy; Curriculum & Planning; and Subject Knowledge Number of teachers who show increased understanding of and practice Teacher’s Role & Well-being; Child Protection, Well-being; Inclusion; Pedagogy; Curriculum & Planning; and Subject Knowledge Number of teachers 100% Gender TiCC Classroom observation, teacher survey World Bank's open-source classroom observation tool Teach All stages
3.7 Teacher satisfaction level with TPD activity/activities they have participated in Number of teachers satisfied with TPD activities they have participated in Number of teachers 100% Gender TiCC Teacher survey Tool required All stages
3.8 Percentage of teachers who report feeling confident in their ability to teach effectively Number of teachers who report feeling confident in their ability to teach effectively Number of teachers 100% Gender TiCC Teacher survey Tool required All stages
3.9 Percentage of teachers and other education personnel benefiting from professional development according to assessed needs Number of teachers and other education personnel benefiting from professional development according to assessed needs Number of teachers 100% Gender New Program administrative data Tool required All stages
3.10 Degree of teacher professional development recognition and/or certification Number of teachers whose TPD is recognized or certified Number of teachers 100% Gender New Program documentation Tool required All stages
Instruction & Learning Processes (T&L Std 3)

Instruction and learning processes are learner-centred, participatory and inclusive.
3.11 Percentage of teachers whose training included methods for how to engage all students equally and in a participatory way Number of teachers whose training included methods in how to engage all students equally and in participatory way Number of teachers 100% Gender New Teacher survey Tool required All stages
3.12 Appropriateness of teaching methods to the age, developmental level, language, culture, capacities, and needs of learners Scale 1-5 (1 = low, 5 = high) 5 NA New Classroom observation World Bank's open-source classroom observation tool Teach All stages
3.13 Percentage of teachers who use structures or routines to manage classroom interactions more effectively Number of teachers who demonsrate effective use of structures or routines for managing classroom interactions Number of teachers 100% Gender New Classroom observation World Bank's open-source classroom observation tool Teach All stages
3.14 Frequency of parental engagement in communications that inform them of learning content and teaching methods Number of parent-teacher engagement sessions Per year To be defined by program NA New program documentation No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
Assessment of Learning Outcomes (T&L Std 4)

Appropriate methods are used to evaluate and validate learning outcomes.
3.15 Percentage of teachers capable of assessing learning progress Number of teachers who are trained in and use continuous student formative learning assessments Number of teachers 100% Gender New Classroom observation World Bank's open-source classroom observation tool Teach All stages
3.16 Degree of use of accreditation, certification, and recognition Measures whether students' learning achievements are formally recognized through accreditation, certification, or some other form of recognition. This is particularly relevant when completing levels, such as primary or secondary Scale 1-5 (1 = low, 5 = high) 5 NA New Program documentation No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
3.17 Learning assessments are available in first languages Number of languages available for assessments Number of first languages 100% NA New program documentation No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages