Standard 9: Protection and Wellbeing

Learning environments are secure and safe, and they promote the protection and the psychosocial wellbeing of learners and teachers and other education personnel.

Ações-chave

1. Psychosocial and physical wellbeing: Promote learning environments that nurture the wellbeing of learners and of teachers and other education personnel.

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2. Protective learning environments: Protect learners and teachers and other education personnel from dangers in and around the learning environment and promote their awareness of these risks.

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3. Knowledge of referral mechanisms: Train teachers and other education personnel how to report and follow-up on protection violations, and how to safely refer learners who have protection needs.

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4. Positive classroom management: Support and train teachers to create a safe, inclusive, equitable, and violence-free learning environment for all.

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5. Prevention of school-related gender-based violence: Establish mechanisms to prevent and respond to SRGBV.

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6. Community participation in protection: Develop systems and policies to make school surroundings safe, in collaboration with families and community members.

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7. Risk reduction in insecure areas or situations: Develop plans to protect learners, teachers and other education personnel, and education infrastructure in insecure areas or situations, and ensure that the routes learners travel to and from school are safe and accessible.

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8. Proximity of learning sites: Locate schools and other learning environments, temporary learning spaces, and child-friendly spaces close to the people they serve.

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9. Prevention of military use and attacks: Ensure that learning environments are free from military use and attacks.

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10. Disaster and climate risk management: Implement disaster and climate risk management activities to keep learning environments safe from hazards and risks of all kinds.

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Notas de orientação
1
Psychosocial and physical wellbeing

Wellbeing is a significant precursor to learners’ improved developmental outcomes. Therefore, supporting wellbeing is an essential part of an EiE response. To promote a safe, secure, and nurturing learning environment, stakeholders should support the wellbeing of learners and of teachers and other education personnel.

A person’s wellbeing is affected by many factors and systems. Any MHPSS activities should be informed by the socio-ecological model (see Figure 7). When designing MHPSS interventions, education stakeholders should keep in mind how risk and support factors at one level interact with factors at another level to influence a child’s wellbeing. Actors across the education system and other sectors should do their best to ensure that MHPSS interventions are complemented and synchronized at other levels of the social ecology. For example, a new policy intended to promote holistic and sustainable changes in corporal punishment may be accompanied by or aligned with school-level initiatives to promote nonviolent classroom-management techniques and establish protection referral systems and complaint mechanisms.

The provision of MHPSS is multi-layered and multi-sectoral and should be delivered in close coordination with other sectors. Humanitarian actors can ensure good coordination by connecting to a cross-sectoral MHPSS technical working group, if already established. If none exists, stakeholders can advocate with the education and health clusters, World Health Organization, or government organizations.

The IASC pyramid is widely used to demonstrate the multi-layered nature of the MHPSS response (see Figure 8). MHPSS, which includes SEL, can take place in a learning environment across layers 1–3 of the pyramid. By teaching children a range of social and emotional competencies, SEL programs can reduce risky behaviors and support positive development, greater attachment to school, and academic success.

Figure 7
Figure 7: Program areas across socio-ecological levels
Figure 8
Figure 8: IASC MHPSS Pyramid

Support at each layer of the MHPSS pyramid should target all learners and teachers. Activities at layer 1 can include:

  • Ensuring that learning environments are physically safe, secure, and gender-responsive
  • Setting up referral mechanisms with other sectors, including child protection and health
  • Creating and maintaining inclusive and caring learning environments through the integration of SEL
  • Advocating for the minimum conditions and standards of health, safety, and learners’ and teachers’ dignity

Activities for learners at layer 2 should be provided by skilled teachers or facilitators and can include:

  • Providing recreational, play-based, or extracurricular activities (arts, sports, music, drama) that promote relationship building, emotional regulation, and communication
  • Providing structured SEL activities that help learners develop social skills, problem-solving, and coping mechanisms
  • Encouraging and supporting parents and caregivers to get involved in their children’s educational activities by helping them with homework, reading to them, or joining school governance bodies

Activities at layer 3 include interventions for high-risk individuals who do not meet the criteria for a mental health diagnosis but have detectable symptoms of a mental, emotional, or behavioral condition. These interventions should be undertaken only by highly trained and qualified staff members, such as clinical social workers, psychologists, psychosocial workers, nurses, or school-based MHPSS providers. Activities they may offer include:

  • Family-based interventions
  • Structured group sessions
  • School-based clinical interventions

Activities at layer 4 include interventions that can only be provided by mental health clinicians and social service professionals. Teachers and other education personnel should be trained to understand the referral mechanisms and to recognize when a learner needs support from other sectors.

There can be stigma around mental health and psychosocial wellbeing in some cultures and contexts. MHPSS professionals should ensure that any services provided are contextually and culturally relevant and build on existing structures and supports (for more guidance, see INEE Guidance Note on Psychosocial Support; INEE Guidance Note for Teacher Wellbeing in Emergency Settings).

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2
Protective learning enviornments

Protective learning environments promote the wellbeing of learners and of teachers and other education personnel and enable learners to engage fully in the learning process. A safe learning environment protects against threats, danger, injury, or loss, and is free from physical or psychosocial harm. It is important that learners and teachers and other education personnel are aware of potential dangers, and that they have the knowledge needed to protect themselves and their surroundings. Potential dangers for learners and teachers and other education personnel in and around the learning environment may include the following:

  • Violence and bullying
  • Gender-based violence, including sexual exploitation and abuse
  • Arms, ammunition, landmines, and unexploded ordnance
  • Armed personnel, crossfire, and other military threats, including abduction and recruitment into armed forces or armed groups
  • Attacks on schools and other learning environments, learners, and teachers and other education personnel at or on the way to school
  • Natural and environmental hazards
  • Political insecurity
  • Xenophobia, racism

During an emergency, children face additional risks because of their age. They may be more vulnerable to abuse, neglect, exploitation, and violence. Learners who are facing social exclusion and discrimination can be at even greater risk of abuse and violence. The child protection and education sectors should work together to strengthen the protection of children and young people and put in place policies and practices that reduce harm and risks.

Risk assessments help education actors understand the potential hazards and protection risks that should inform programming. Community members, learners, young people, parents and caregivers, and teachers and other education personnel can play a leading role in such assessments. The risk assessment findings should inform the development of protective policies and practices. Specialized organizations can help identify people who are at particular risk and give advice about how to mitigate those risks. Education stakeholders should conduct these assessments regularly and include an analysis of relevant cultural and political factors.

Teachers and other education personnel can and should help promote a tolerant and respectful school culture in which diverse perspectives are respected. Communities should provide oversight and engage with schools to create holistic, protective learning environments (for more guidance, see Supporting Integrated Child Protection and Education Programming in Humanitarian Action; Education in Emergencies – Child Protection Collaboration Framework; Minimum Standards for Child Protection, Standard 23).

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3
Knowledge of referral pathways

Any actors working with children and young people must have safeguarding mechanisms and referral pathways in place to address child protection concerns or MHPSS needs. If protection violations occur in and around the learning environment, or if learners show signs of experiencing neglect, abuse, or violence in the home, teachers must be able to report, follow up, and safely refer children to other specialized services. Children who are facing immediate risk should be referred immediately. Relevant actions to address child protection concerns in the learning environment may include the following:

  • Establishing referral pathways to specialized services
  • Training teachers, other education personnel, caregivers, and community leaders how to recognize signs of physical or psychosocial distress and other protection concerns
  • Training teachers and other education personnel how to use the correct channels to report suspected child protection cases
  • Clarifying where teachers and other education personnel can refer children who are facing imminent risks
  • Making learners aware of their rights and how they can report violations of those rights
  • Displaying reporting mechanisms openly in the classroom and community

Education and child protection actors should collaborate on training teachers. They also should promote awareness in the community and among learners about how to report safety violations. Learners who have experienced or are at risk of protection violations must be given support, and any response should be documented. This may include referral to health, protection, or psychosocial service providers. Education and child protection actors must maintain confidentiality in all cases. Education actors and teachers should be aware of situations where children and young people are at heightened risk of violence or psychological and social difficulties. This may occur in the home or in digital spaces, or when education is disrupted (for more guidance, see Supporting Integrated Child Protection and Education Programming in Humanitarian Action).

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4
Positive classroom management

SDG 4 addresses quality education and sets the goal of everyone having access to a safe and nonviolent learning environment. The teacher is responsible for creating a supportive atmosphere in the learning environment so that children can thrive and learn, and they should encourage mutual understanding, peace, and tolerance. Teachers should use positive reinforcement and positive discipline strategies and never corporal punishment, verbal abuse, humiliation, or intimidation. Intimidation includes mental stress, violence, abuse, and discrimination. Education stakeholders and school leaders should make sure that teachers are trained in positive classroom management and the prevention of bullying. This will enable them to teach learners how to prevent violence and conflict. Teacher codes of conduct can establish the importance of positive discipline, which can be addressed in teacher training, mentoring, and supervision activities. Breaches of the code of conduct, such as corporal punishment or abuse, should be reported and followed up on. Teachers also should receive support to include MHPSS and SEL activities in their teaching practices.

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5
Prevention of school-related gender-based violence.

SRGBV, particularly sexual violence, is a serious, life-threatening protection issue. Women, girls, gender diverse people, and people who are LGBTQIA+ are at greatest risk of experiencing SRGBV, but it can also be a threat to men and boys. Children with intersecting vulnerabilities are at heightened risk, especially those with disabilities.

Learners and teachers and other education personnel can be both perpetrators and victims of SRGBV, including sexual exploitation and abuse. Education stakeholders and school leaders should make sure that teachers and other education personnel and any volunteers in the classroom are trained to know what SRGBV is, how to prevent it, and, if it happens, how to respond and report it. They in turn should teach learners about gender equality and rights. Teacher training should include how to manage an SRGBV disclosure from a learner in a compassionate way. Education programs should monitor and respond to harassment and sexual exploitation. Parents and caregivers, learners, and teachers and other education personnel should agree on ways to reduce risks to children and young people within the learning environment, and while going to and from school. This can include:

  • Jointly developing and publicly posting clear rules against sexual harassment, exploitation, abuse, and other types of gender-based violence
  • Consistently enforcing consequences when those rules are violated
  • Including these rules in the code of conduct for teachers and other education personnel, and training all parties in the code of conduct
  • Increasing the number of adult women in the learning environment to help protect and reassure female learners; if this is not possible, women from the community can be asked to help in the classroom and offered training on protective measures
  • Teaching evidence-based and age-appropriate sexual and reproductive health and rights education for all genders so that learners have appropriate knowledge about their rights, giving consent, and healthy relationships

Have a safe reporting, complaint, and response system in place to deal with gender-based violence if it does occur. The school may get assistance from the relevant national authorities or from a suitable independent organization to set up this system. Survivors of gender-based violence need health support, MHPSS, and protection from a well-organized referral system. In some cases this may also include referrals to law enforcement. The Child Protection Area of Responsibility under the Protection Cluster, protection working groups, United Nations Population Fund, and other specialized organizations may also be able to advise (for more guidance, see INEE Guidance Note on Gender).

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6
Community participation in protection

Communities should play a leading role in creating, protecting, and overseeing the learning environment. In environments where violence and other threats are common, it is important to involve families and communities in promoting safety in the home, school, and community, which can include:

  • Involving the community in mapping protection risks and developing school safety plans or policies
  • Raising awareness among parents and caregivers about positive methods of raising children and young people, including positive discipline
  • Raising awareness of protection concerns in the community with recognized security forces
  • Working with communities and authorities to manage protection concerns by, for example, organizing walking groups with safety escorts or providing transportation for learners going to and from school
  • Training community members to assess and respond to protection issues
  • Raising community awareness about harmful practices, such as forced marriage, honor killings, and female genital cutting, and about the risks of SRGBV

Representatives of all marginalized groups should be involved in designing protection programs in the learning environment, including girls, women, persons with disabilities, and ethnic minorities. They should be involved in ways that are culturally appropriate, such as providing women-only consultations. A community education committee can be a useful forum to strengthen the community’s ownership of protecting the learning environment (for more guidance, see Minimum Standards for Child Protection, Standard 17).

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7
Risk reduction in insecure areas or situations

During a crisis, being at or traveling to and from school might expose learners and teachers and other education personnel to a number of risks. As the primary duty bearer, the government is responsible for putting in place systems and plans to ensure that schools are safe. Education actors, protection actors, and communities should collaborate with the authorities to identify and reduce risks.

In insecure situations, the community should decide if they want learners to attend school in person. If the usual learning sites are not safe or available, alternative safe sites or alternative methods of delivery can be arranged to limit any disruption of learning. This may include home schooling or distance education. Education actors should plan distance education carefully so that all learners are able to access it. This may require providing both digital and non-digital options. When distance education is used, it is important to ensure that learners’ protection and wellbeing needs continue to be addressed. This may include self-care MHPSS interventions to help learners deal with the stressors related to the crisis or the disruption to their learning. Learners need protection from the unauthorized use of their personal data, and from online harassment, bullying, and abuse.

All learners and teachers and other education personnel must have safe and secure routes to and from school. Communities, including girls, boys, gender diverse children and young people, and children with disabilities, should find out if there are threats and agree on how to manage them. When learners must walk to the learning environment along poorly lit roads, providing adult escorts or using reflectors or reflective tape on clothing and bags can improve safety. Walking groups supervised by adults or a learner buddy system can enable learners to walk together safely to and from school. Mobility aids or transportation can help learners with disabilities travel between home and learning sites. Working with other sectors, such as protection, shelter, and camp management, can help determine which schools and school routes are safe.

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8
Proximity of learning sites

The maximum distance between learners and learning sites should be in line with local and national standards and should take the learners’ ages and abilities into consideration. It also is important to consider any nearby security, safety, and accessibility concerns, like soldiers’ quarters, landmines, and dense bush. Curfews may restrict access to education, especially when imposed on young people. In such situations, education actors should ask learners, parents and caregivers, and other community members to help find alternative learning spaces and to identify possible dangers in those areas. If the distance some learners must travel to school makes it difficult to reach, it can be helpful to hold satellite or “feeder” classes in learning spaces nearer to their homes. Schools that offer boarding must manage protection risks carefully, including gender-based violence. Education actors and the community must create mechanisms to protect learners of all genders.

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9
Prevention of military use and attacks

During conflict, military attacks may occur frequently and soldiers often will occupy education sites. Attacks on education include violence against education facilities, learners, and teachers and other education personnel. Attacks on education can cause injury, death, and severe distress, and often lead to school closures. Armed forces and non-state armed groups also may use schools for military purposes, such as barracks or detention centers. Armed forces also may attack education institutions during environmental crises.

Military use of schools can put learners and teachers and other education personnel at serious risk of forced recruitment, as well as sexual exploitation and abuse. It also undermines children’s and young people’s right to education and makes attacks on education more likely. Attacks against civilians and civilian objects, including schools, is generally considered a violation of international humanitarian law.

Attacks on schools and hospitals are one of the six grave violations monitored and reported on under UN Security Council Resolution 1612 (2005). This resolution established the Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism on children in armed conflict and is the subject of an annual report by the UN Secretary General. When an attack occurs, it should be reported through the UN Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism. Governments that endorse the Safe Schools Declaration, which is “an intergovernmental political commitment to protect learners, teachers, schools, and universities from the worst effects of armed conflict,” commit to ensuring that education will continue during violent conflict. They also agree to collect data on attacks on education, to help all victims in a non-discriminatory way, and to follow the Guidelines for Protecting Schools and Universities from Military Use during Armed Conflict, issued in 2014 by the Global Coalition to Protection Education from Attack.

Collaboration between child protection, human rights, and education actors can strengthen the advocacy, analysis, and implementation of interventions to prevent and reduce attacks on education. Depending on the context, actions to prevent and reduce risks may include:

  • Encouraging negotiations with the parties involved in the conflict to protect education institutions
  • Campaigning for governments to endorse and adhere to the Safe Schools Declaration
  • Advocating and coordinating with the military to discourage military use of schools, including, when appropriate, using the Guidelines for Protecting Schools and Universities from Military Use during Armed Conflict as practical guidance for armed actors
  • Working with governments and military judicial systems, armed forces, and armed groups to increase their awareness of the rules of international humanitarian law and strengthening their capacity to apply them to the protection of education
  • Encouraging armed forces and armed groups to refrain from locating military objectives (e.g., combatants, weapons depots) near education facilities to reduce the risk of damaging them
  • Adding safety messages, MHPSS, education on human rights, conflict resolution, peacebuilding, social cohesion, humanitarian law, and/or the fundamental principles of humanitarian action to the curriculum as appropriate for the learning level and context
  • Providing landmine awareness programs and demining where relevant
  • Raising public awareness of the meaning and use of the Geneva Conventions and the Additional Protocols, and of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, which prohibit attacks against civilians (including learners and teachers) and education buildings in times of war
  • Reinforcing school buildings or perimeter walls and using security guards, either paid or community volunteers
  • Providing alternative ways to deliver education, such as home- and community-based schools and distance education
  • Moving endangered learners and teachers and other education personnel to safe locations

Depending on the security situation, the community may be able to help protect education (for more guidance, see Supporting Integrated Child Protection and Education Programming in Humanitarian Action; The Role of Communities in Protecting Education from Attack: Lessons Learned).

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10
Disaster and climate risk management

Education authorities and other education actors should empower learners, teachers and other education personnel, and communities to support disaster prevention and risk management activities. These can include:

  • Assessing risks using existing data from national authorities and early warning systems
  • Mapping risks in and around schools
  • Conducting annual school safety self-assessments including identifying relevant hazards, assessing the conditions of buildings and infrastructure, implementing school-based risk reduction activities, learning skills for disaster response, and maintaining response provisions
  • Reducing risks with measures such as maintaining buildings in good repair and keeping exit pathways and evacuation routes clear
  • Learning and practicing Standard Operating Procedures for safe building evacuation and safe assembly, evacuation to a safe haven, shelter-in-place, lockdown, and safe family reunification, and when to use each one
  • Learning and practicing hazard specific protective actions such as Drop, Cover, and Hold during earthquakes, Drop, Cover, Hold and Count in tsunami-prone zones, and Stop, Drop, and Roll if on fire
  • Developing and using emergency preparedness and DRR plans at the school level
  • Teaching about landmine awareness in school surroundings and agricultural areas
  • Including DRR awareness in the curriculum

Community members or school safety committees may need help integrating school safety into their school-based management or improvement plans. Education and disaster risk management stakeholders should help communities or school committees to assess and prioritize risks, carry out physical and environmental protection strategies, and develop response preparedness procedures and skills. Community and indigenous knowledge should be used in developing or adapting DRR and resilience plans and response preparedness strategies.

School-based disaster and climate risk management plans should be linked to the national and community-based disaster management system. School-level preparedness plans also should be connected with local and national contingency plans developed as part of the ESP or TEP.

Education authorities at the national, sub-national, and local level should review their risk assessment, risk reduction, and emergency response preparedness annually. These stakeholders should ensure that persons with disabilities participate in the planning process. They should communicate plans to the whole school community in ways that are accessible to all, including people with low levels of literacy and learners with disabilities (for more guidance see Comprehensive School Safety Framework).   

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Supporting Resources

Recursos de Apoio
1 Janeiro 2019 Manual/Handbook/Guide United Nations Girls Education Initiative (UNGEI)

A whole school approach to prevent school related gender-based violence: Minimum standards and monitoring framework

Provides a framework to guide policymakers and practitioners in designing school violence prevention programmes and strengthening response actions. The prevention model is based on eight evidence-based standards and is accompanied by a monitoring approach with a set of proposed indicators for school, district and national levels.

30 Junho 2022 Manual/Guia Aliança Global para a Redução do Risco de Desastres e Resiliência no Setor da Educação (GADRRRES)

Marco abrangente sobre segurança escolar

O CSSF 2022-2030 é uma abordagem que abrange todos os perigos e riscos para a proteção e a educação de crianças, e oferece aos governos uma estrutura prática para fazer progressos urgentes em uma série de direitos das crianças e na agenda de desenvolvimento sustentável.

1 Setembro 2020 Framework Child Protection Area of Responsibility (CP AoR), Global Education Cluster

Education in Emergencies - Child Protection Collaboration Framework

The CP-EiE Collaboration framework supports Education and CP coordination teams’ predictable and coherent collaboration throughout the Humanitarian Programme Cycle (HPC). At each step of the HPC, it provides steps to strengthen CP-EiE collaboration, promising collaboration practices from country coordination groups, and tools and resources to support collaboration.

1 Janeiro 2016 Manual/Handbook/Guide United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organziation (UNESCO), UN Women

Global guidance on addressing school-related gender-based violence

The “Global guidance” provides key information to governments, policy-makers, teachers, practitioners, and civil society who wish to take concrete action against school-related gender-based violence. It introduces approaches, methodologies, tools, and resources that have shown positive results in preventing and responding to school-related gender-based violence.

28 Agosto 2015 Manual/Handbook/Guide Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC)

Guidelines for Integrating Gender-Based Violence Interventions in Humanitarian Action

The Guidelines for Integrating Gender-Based Violence Interventions in Humanitarian Action were developed to assist humanitarian actors and communities affected by humanitarian emergencies to coordinate, implement, monitor and evaluate essential action for the prevention and mitigation of gender based violence across all sectors of humanitarian action.

18 Maio 2021 Ferramentas United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), World Health Organization (WHO)

Helping Adolescents Thrive Toolkit

This guidance document, the HAT toolkit, has been developed to improve programming for adolescent mental health promotion and prevention and to support the implementation of the WHO HAT guidelines on mental health promotive and preventive interventions for adolescents.

1 Janeiro 2007 Manual/Handbook/Guide Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC)

Guidelines on Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Emergency Settings

The Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) issued these Guidelines to enable humanitarian actors to plan, establish and coordinate a set of minimum multi-sectoral responses to protect and improve peoples mental health and psychosocial well-being in the midst of an emergency.

29 Junho 2018 Manual/Guia Rede Interinstitucional para a Educação em situações de Emergência (INEE)

Manual Sobre Apoio Psicossocial

Este Manual da INEE procura dar resposta a uma lacuna nas ferramentas para educadores e profissionais que trabalham em contextos de emergência e crise, que estão atualmente disponíveis.

24 Maio 2022 Manual/Guia Rede Interinstitucional para a Educação em situações de Emergência (INEE)

Nota de Orientação para o Bem-Estar de Professores e Professoras em Contextos de Emergência

Esta Nota de Orientação expande os Requisitos Mínimos da INEE. Se você trabalha na educação em situações de emergência (EeE) e em outros sectores (como proteção, finanças ou WASH), pode utilizar estas recomendações para apoiar o bem-estar de professoras/es.

1 Janeiro 2018 Manual/Handbook/Guide International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), World Vision

Operational Guidance for Child Friendly Spaces in Humanitarian Settings

The Operational Guidance for Child Friendly Spaces in Humanitarian Settings summarises key approaches in the protection of children and in the promotion of their psychosocial well-being. It is directed to CFS managers and facilitators/animators.

1 Maio 2019 Manual/Handbook/Guide United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)

Risk-informed Education Programming for Resilience

This Guidance Note aims to help UNICEF education staff at all levels, who are working in humanitarian, transition, and development contexts, analyze risk and adapt education policies and programs to take risk into account, so that education populations and systems are more resilient and all children and youth are in school and learning.

1 Maio 2015 Declaração/Convenção Coligação Global para Proteger a Educação de Ataques

Declaração de Escolas Seguras

Acolhemos com satisfação iniciativas de Estados individuais para a promoção e proteção ao direito à educação e para a facilitação da continuidade da educação em situações de conflito armado. A continuidade da educação pode fornecer informações capazes de salvar vidas e oferecer conselhos sobre riscos específicos pelos quais passam sociedades em cenário de conflitos armados.

5 Dezembro 2022 Manual/Guia Aliança para a Proteção da Criança na Ação Humanitárias, Rede Interinstitucional para a Educação em situações de Emergência (INEE)

Apoiar programas integrados de educação e proteção infantil na ação humanitária

Esta orientação procura apoiar as/os profissionais de Proteção e Educação Infantil que respondem às necessidades das crianças durante crises humanitárias. Isto inclui ministérios relevantes, organizações nacionais da sociedade civil, organizações religiosas e de base comunitária, ONGs e ONGIs, agências da ONU e outras organizações implementadoras e doadores. 

Indicadores

Untitled Spreadsheet
INEE Domain INEE Standard Indicator/Program Requirements Clarification Numerator Denominator Target Disaggregation Source of Indicator Source of Data Available Tool Crisis Phase
Access and Learning Environment Equal Access (A&L Std 1)

All individuals have access to quality and relevant education opportunities.
2.1 Net attendance rate Number of crisis-affected school-age children who attended school during the previous academic week Number of crisis-affected school-age children 100% Level of education
Gender
Ethnicity
Mother tongue
Wealth quintile
Disability
Displacement status
As relevant
OCHA Indicator Registry Government or cluster reporting, school or household-based surveys, M&E mechanisms, school records DHS All stages
2.2 Percentage of students who meet minimum proficiency levels in reading and mathematics, and/or demonstrate adequate progress in academic, vocational, and/or social and emotional learning (SEL) skills What defines adequate progress in learning outcomes depends on many factors, such as emergency context, age group, and program aims. This indicator is one that will need to be contextualized according to identified factors. Number of students who meet minimum proficiency levels in reading and mathematics, and/or demonstrate adequate progress in academic, vocational, and/or SEL skills Number of students 100% Level of education
Gender
Ethnicity
Mother tongue
Wealth quintile
Disability
Displacement status
As relevant
New Learning outcome measures INEE Measurement Library Once program implementation has begun
Protection & Well-being (A&L Std 2)

Learning environments are secure and safe, and promote the protection and the psychosocial well-being of learners, teachers, and other education personnel.
2.3 Percentage of targeted learning spaces featuring psychosocial support (PSS) activities for children that fulfil at least three out of the four following attributes: a) structured, b) goal-oriented, c) evidence-informed, d) targeted and tailored to different sub-groups of vulnerable children This indicator reflects the provision of holistic PSS services to children in need, as opposed to "shallow," unstructured activities that are unlikely to yield outcome-level results. The PSS intervention will have to feature at least three of the four following attributes: a) structured, b) goal-oriented, c) evidence-informed, d) targeted and tailored to different sub-groups of vulnerable children. Number of targeted learning spaces featuring PSS activities for children that fulfil at least three of the four following attributes: a) structured, b) goal-oriented, c) evidence-informed, d) targeted and tailored to different sub-groups of vulnerable children Number of targeted learning spaces 100% Could be disaggregated by a), b), c), and d)

Formal vs non-formal
New Program documentation, school policies, school observations. Figures provided can be based on surveys or estimates. Reference should be made to in-country standards for provision of PSS services, or, if the latter do not exist, refer to INEE standards and guidelines. Tool required All stages
2.4 Percentage of targeted learning spaces with disaster risk reduction (DRR) processes/measures in place Existence of up-to-date school-level contingency/emergency preparedness plans, or conduction of simulation drills for example Number of targeted learning spaces adopting and operationalizing DRR policies/practices Number of targeted learning spaces 100% Formal vs non-formal OCHA Indicator Registry Program documentation, school policies, school observations Tool required All stages
2.5 Percentage of children, teachers, and other staff who report feeling safe in school and on the way to/from school Number of children, teachers, and other staff who report feeling safe in school and on the way to/from school Number of children, teachers, and other staff in school 100% Children/teachers/other staff
Level of education
Gender
Ethnicity
Mother tongue
Wealth quintile
Disability
Displacement status
As relevant
New Survey of students and staff Tool required All stages
Facilities & Service (A&L Std 3)

Education facilities promote the safety and well-being of learners, teachers, and other education personnel and are linked to health, nutrition, psychosocial, and protection services.
2.6 Percentage of targeted learning spaces that meet EiE access, quality, and safety standards for infrastructure Number of targeted learning spaces meeting EiE access, quality, and safety standards for infrastructure Number of targeted learning spaces 100% Formal vs non-formal OCHA Indicator Registry Learning space inventories, program documentation, cluster reporting, EMIS Guidance notes on safer school construction All stages
2.7 Percentage of learning spaces with gender- and disability-sensitive WASH facilities Number of learning spaces with gender- and disability-sensitive WASH facilities Number of targeted learning spaces 100% Formal vs non-formal OCHA Indicator Registry Learning space inventories, program documentation, cluster reporting, EMIS UNRWA Education in Emergencies Indicator Bank, page 19 All stages
2.8 Percentage of targeted learning spaces that offer school meals Number of targeted learning spaces that offer school meals Number of targeted learning spaces 100% Formal vs non-formal New Program documentation No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
2.9 Percentage of targeted learning spaces that offer referrals to specialized health, psychosocial, and protection services Number of targeted learning spaces that offer referrals to specialized health, psychosocial, and protection services Number of targeted learning spaces 100% Formal vs non-formal New Program documentation No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages