Standard 19: Planning and Implementation

Education programs and activities reflect international and national educational policies, laws, standards, plans, and the learning needs of the people affected.


1. National and international legal frameworks: Ensure that formal and non-formal education programs reflect national and international legal frameworks.

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2. Planning for emergencies: Develop and implement education plans that prepare for and respond to current and future crises.

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3. Sufficient resources: Mobilize enough financial, technical, material, and human resources to develop and implement education plans and EiE programs effectively and transparently.

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4. Inter-sectoral links: Integrate EiE planning and implementation with other emergency response sectors.

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5. Advocacy: Advocate for EiE as part of education policy planning and implementation.

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Notas de orientação
National and international legal frameworks

Formal and non-formal education programs should be in line with national and international legal frameworks and policies and meet the needs of all learners. Programs should ensure that education access, the curriculum, and teaching and learning are inclusive and non-discriminatory.

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Planning for emergencies

ESPs and other national and local education plans should prepare for and respond to future and current emergencies. They should include emergency preparedness plans and contingency plans. Contingency plans should be appropriate to the context and, where possible, include early warning systems for natural hazards and conflicts. Emergency preparedness and contingency planning should be an inclusive process. Policy-makers and education stakeholders must identify the needs of vulnerable and marginalized groups and make sure they are reflected in these plans. Community participation in contingency or response planning is important so that the perspectives and needs of different groups in the community are addressed. This will also strengthen the community’s sense of ownership, awareness, and commitment to EiE activities. Connections should be made with other sectors, including WASH, nutrition, health, child protection, and MHPSS.

Plans should include detailed explanation of how to respond to a crisis, including decision-making, coordination, and providing security and protection mechanisms for inter-sectoral coordination. The roles of key stakeholders, including learners, teachers and other education personnel, parents and caregivers, and the wider community, should be clearly defined. Plans should consider how to continue education if the education facilities are used as shelters, or if they become inaccessible or unusable due to natural hazards or conflict. Safety and security measures should be in place in each education facility, including evacuation plans. Plans need to be reviewed regularly to ensure that they are up to date. They also should be coordinated with longer-term plans to develop the education sector. Stakeholders who support national or local education programs should promote emergency preparedness and contingency planning as part of development activities.

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Sufficient resources

National authorities, humanitarian actors, donors, NGOs, communities, and other stakeholders should work together to ensure that there is adequate funding for EiE. National authorities should lead the coordination of the financial, technical, material, and human resources for a response, in cooperation with the inter-agency coordination mechanism. Meeting immediate resource needs should be a priority. Actors should consider the environmental impact when sourcing these needs and can use an environmental assessment tool, such as the NEAT+, to ensure that a response is sustainable. Education authorities and humanitarian partners should allocate resources for reporting attacks on education in a centralized and systematic way, and for collecting, analyzing, and sharing education data.

The private sector may also be well suited to support tech-enabled interventions and to provide important mobile technologies and other digital learning resources. Education authorities and the relevant partners should decide which digital learning platforms to use to make sure that they are suitable to the context and needs of the people affected. It is also important that resource allocation is balanced between physical resources, such as classrooms, textbooks, and other learning materials, and human resources, such as teachers, MHPSS, and teacher support. Schools, ECD centers, and tertiary institutions also need resources to report attacks on education and the use of learning environments by the military and non-state armed groups.

Transparency and accountability are key when it comes to managing resources effectively. Confidential and culturally appropriate systems should be in place to monitor and manage issues relating to public policy or corruption. These systems should encourage people to report corruption, in both monetary and non-monetary forms, without fear of punishment. Sharing information about resources among the central and local authorities, communities, and other humanitarian stakeholders and having accountability mechanisms in place will make it possible to source and provide resources ethically and safely.

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Inter-sectoral links

The EiE response for all ages, from early childhood to tertiary, should be connected to activities in other sectors, such as WASH, nutrition, food security, shelter, health, livelihoods, urban planning, shelter, economic recovery, child protection, and MHPSS. This will help ensure that the EiE response addresses the diverse and multi-sectoral needs of crisis-affected learners. A multi-sector assessment is an important starting point for any emergency response. Emergency preparedness and contingency plans should include specific provisions for inter-sectoral coordination at the national and subnational levels. For example, collaboration between education authorities and other sectors or national agencies for disaster management can promote the integration of education into multi-sectoral rapid response efforts, strengthen referral pathways, and avoid the use of schools as temporary shelters.

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Advocacy can take place at a local, national, and global level. It targets those in positions of power, frequently governments, donors, and institutions. EiE advocacy focuses on ensuring access to quality, safe, and relevant education for all during a crisis. EiE advocacy can begin before an emergency. It can include, for example, efforts to advance policies that protect the right to education in the event of a crisis. It can also continue after a crisis and into recovery, such as negotiations for a safe return to school for learners affected by an emergency.

EiE advocacy can work toward the following:

  • Influencing changes at the policy level to increase the reach and sustainability of education access
  • Ensuring that duty bearers are held accountable for fulfilling their responsibilities and their commitment to ensure all individuals’ right to education, as enshrined in international human rights law
  • Ensuring that national authorities and humanitarian actors prioritize education in humanitarian responses and mobilize adequate resources
  • Ensuring that policy-makers and decision-makers listen to and consider the voices, experiences, perspectives, and priorities of those affected by crises, including children, young people, teachers and other education personnel, and marginalized groups

EiE advocacy should be a key part of planning and implementing education policy. It should be carried out at all levels, but responsibility for advocacy will depend on what issues need attention. Policy-makers should engage communities and other key stakeholders, such as CSOs, in all stages of developing and implementing education policy. Communities may need to advocate for their own involvement, and CSOs can lead advocacy efforts if the policy process is not happening in an inclusive way. To ensure that there is a coherent and relevant approach to EiE advocacy, a strategy is needed to identify what to advocate for, how, and to whom. As highlighted in the introduction to this domain, advocacy can take place through different modalities, including face-to-face interaction or online. The INEE MS are a key tool to use in advocating for the provision of inclusive and equitable quality education for all in times of crisis (for more guidance, see Creating Change: Advocacy Toolkit for Education in Emergencies).

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Supporting Resources

Recursos de Apoio
1 Abril 2022 Kit de ferramentas Rede Interinstitucional para a Educação em situações de Emergência (INEE)

Criar a mudança: Conjunto de ferramentas para a advocacy da Educação em Situações de Emergência

O kit de ferramentas de advocacy da INEE visa tornar mais fácil e rápido para os membros da INEE encontrar as ferramentas de que precisam para fortalecer seu trabalho vital. O kit de ferramentas reúne recursos de todos os setores de educação, humanitário e de desenvolvimento, e os apresenta como listas claras e concisas.

15 Agosto 2022 Background Paper Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE)

INEE Background Paper on Distance Education in Emergencies

This background paper highlights specific challenges, lessons learned, practices, and actions to consider when aiming to provide quality, principles-based distance education (DE) in emergencies. The paper considers inclusion and equity to be key guiding principles for education in general and calls for their application across all education modalities, especially distance education.

1 Março 2013 Manual/Guia Rede Interinstitucional para a Educação em situações de Emergência (INEE)

Rede interinstitucional para a educação em situações de emergência manual sobre educação sensível às questões de conflito

Assim, o Manual visa apoiar e expandir os Requisitos Mínimos da INEE, procurando assumir-se como uma ferramenta de referência para o desenvolvimento de estratégias e recursos educativos sensíveis às questões de conflito, dirigida a profissionais do setor da educação e decisores políticos que trabalhem em contextos frágeis e afetados por conflitos.

9 Julho 2019 Manual/Guia Rede Interinstitucional para a Educação em situações de Emergência (INEE), Iniciativa das Nações Unidas sobre Educação de Meninas (UNGEI)

Manual da INEE sobre Género

O Manual da INEE sobre Género apoia as práticas educativas que privilegiam o género, destinando-se a todas as pessoas envolvidas na educação em situações de emergência (EeE), como parte do processo de preparação, resposta ou reconstrução. Isto inclui governos, organizações não-governamentais, agências internacionais e doadores

29 Junho 2018 Manual/Guia Rede Interinstitucional para a Educação em situações de Emergência (INEE)

Manual Sobre Apoio Psicossocial

Este Manual da INEE procura dar resposta a uma lacuna nas ferramentas para educadores e profissionais que trabalham em contextos de emergência e crise, que estão atualmente disponíveis.

24 Maio 2022 Manual/Guia Rede Interinstitucional para a Educação em situações de Emergência (INEE)

Nota de Orientação para o Bem-Estar de Professores e Professoras em Contextos de Emergência

Esta Nota de Orientação expande os Requisitos Mínimos da INEE. Se você trabalha na educação em situações de emergência (EeE) e em outros sectores (como proteção, finanças ou WASH), pode utilizar estas recomendações para apoiar o bem-estar de professoras/es.

1 Maio 2019 Manual/Handbook/Guide United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)

Risk-informed Education Programming for Resilience

This Guidance Note aims to help UNICEF education staff at all levels, who are working in humanitarian, transition, and development contexts, analyze risk and adapt education policies and programs to take risk into account, so that education populations and systems are more resilient and all children and youth are in school and learning.


Untitled Spreadsheet
INEE Domain INEE Standard Indicator/Program Requirements Clarification Numerator Denominator Target Disaggregation Source of Indicator Source of Data Available Tool Crisis Phase
Education Policy Law & Policy Formulation (EP Std 1)

Education authorities prioritise continuity and recovery of quality education, including free and inclusive access to schooling.
5.1 Degree of engagement in evidence-based policy advocacy Where national policies are inadequate, organizations participate in or support evidence-based advocacy for improving national policies. Scale 1-5 (1 = low, 5 = high)
Level 1—Organization is not aware of national policy deficiencies and does not seek to improve national policy
Level 3—Organization engages in policy advocacy but does not rely on evidence-based approaches
Level 5—Organization understands national policy deficiencies, and either leads or contributes to coalition efforts to strengthen national policies using evidence-based approaches
4+ NA New Program documentation Tool required All stages
Planning & Implementation (EP Std 2)

Education activities take into account international and national educational policies, laws, standards and plans and the learning needs of affected populations.
5.2 Degree of adherence to national and international policies and laws Education activities hold to account international and national educational policies, laws, standards, plans, and the learning needs of affected populations. Scale 1-5 (1 = low, 5 = high)
Level 1—Organization does not factor in national or international standards in program design
Level 3—Organization has understanding of national and international standards but does not meet these standards in program design, implementation, monitoring, or evaluation
Level 5—Organization uses all relevant national and international standards as a minimum standard in program design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation
4+ NA New Program documentation Tool required All stages
5.3 Level of planning for future and current emergencies Plans are up to date and address full cycle of EiE response, from preparedness through response and recovery. This could be broken into sub-indicators for each stage, if relevant. Scale 1-5 (1 = low, 5 = high)
Level 1—Organization does not have plans for responding to future emergencies
Level 3—Organization has plans for responding to future emergencies, but plans are either out of date or lack sufficient detail
Level 5—Organization has detailed plans, that are regularly updated to respond to forseeable emergencies, as well as contingency plans for responding to unforseeable emergencies
4+ NA New Program documentation Tool required All stages