Standard 2: Resources

Community resources are identified, mobilized, and used to implement age-appropriate learning opportunities.

Key Actions

1. Community resources: Identify, analyze, and mobilize local resources to support EiE activities.

See Guidance Notes:

2. Safety, access, and quality: Work with communities, education authorities, and humanitarian actors to strengthen the safety of, access to, and quality of education.

See Guidance Notes:

3. Community contributions: Recognize existing skills and knowledge within the community and design EiE programs that build on them.

See Guidance Notes:

4. Disaster risk reduction and conflict mitigation: Use community resources to develop, adapt, and deliver education that includes DRR and conflict mitigation.

See Guidance Notes:

Guidance Notes
1
Community resources

Community resources include the cultural, intellectual, linguistic, monetary, and material resources in a community. Examples of this are technological infrastructure related to distance education, such as radio or mobile phone coverage, and internet access and connectivity. When designing and planning an education response, education authorities and humanitarian actors should identify and analyze the locally available resources to work out how they can contribute to the response. It is important to recognize a community’s local and indigenous knowledge systems. A social audit or capacity assessment can help identify what local resources are available. It is important not to overwhelm communities, and to provide support as requested to manage incoming financial and material resources so they can provide the maximum benefit to the community. However, community resources are not a replacement for the national authorities’ legal responsibility to protect and fulfill the right to education.

Community resources can contribute to education in several ways, such as providing physical spaces for ECD centers, schools, and other learning environments, and the material and labor needed to build, maintain, and repair them. Communities also play an important role in promoting protection and supporting the emotional, physical, social, and cognitive wellbeing of learners, teachers and other education personnel, and parents and caregivers. This includes providing sufficient compensation to help teachers maintain their practice, motivation, and wellbeing. Although the national authorities have the ultimate responsibility for managing appropriate teacher compensation, in some cases communities can mobilize what resources are available to support teachers, such as in-kind or cash compensation gathered by the community education committee (for more guidance, see INEE Guidance Note on Psychosocial Support; INEE Guidance Note on Teacher Wellbeing in Emergency Settings).

To provide and monitor transparency and accountability, it is essential to keep records of the resources communities mobilize. Monitoring must include mechanisms that safeguard children, such as those that identify and track practices that may harm or exploit children, such as child labor. Other important indicators are those that identify and track instances where women or socially or economically marginalized groups are unfairly relied on to perform tasks or provide resources (for more guidance, see Minimum Standards for Child Protection).

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2
Strengthening safety, access, and quality

Community resources can improve the safety of, access to, and quality of education. Education authorities, the local community, and humanitarian actors should encourage community members to identify and help vulnerable children and young people gain access to learning opportunities and continue to higher education levels.

Communities and education authorities should work together to make schools, ECD centers, and other learning environments safe and protective places for children and young people. This can include organizing safe access and transportation, and reaching out to those living in isolated and remote areas. Community members can help teachers by serving as classroom assistants or school focal persons, or by taking on non-teaching tasks like preparing resources. Learners will benefit from having community members of all genders serve as ECD caregivers and classroom assistants, or from having them provide security support to ensure that all learners will be safe on the way to and from school. Providing childcare in learning spaces can help caregivers, particularly girls and young women who are mothers or are caring for younger siblings, to continue their education. Young children also benefit from having both female and male early childhood caregivers. Communities and other stakeholders should ensure that strong role models of all genders are involved across the learning continuum (for more guidance, see INEE Guidance Note on Gender).

Where distance education programs are being used, neighbors, extended family, and siblings can help support both teachers and learners. For example, the community can provide homes or community spaces as learning centers. Bringing this about may first require raising community awareness about the benefits of and support needed to provide distance education (for more guidance, see INEE Background Paper on Distance Education in Emergencies).

In areas where formal education opportunities that meet the needs and demands of young people are not available, the community can advocate for non-formal education programs. This might include accelerated education, catch-up classes, lessons in basic literacy and numeracy, TVET, and small business development training. To ensure that non-formal education programs are recognized, the education authorities should lead their design, with support from the community. Where relevant, development and humanitarian partners should also be involved in developing these programs (for more guidance see Minimum Economic Recovery Standards, Enterprise and Market Systems Development Standards).

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3
Community contributions

When education authorities or other stakeholders plan, implement, and report on activities, they should include information on community contributions. Strong community contribution shows a sense of ownership and helps create long-term support. However, contributions from the community should not be a condition for receiving support, as the national authorities have a legal responsibility to fulfill the right to education.

It is important that children and young people, especially those from marginalized groups, participate in the design and needs assessment stages of education planning. Stakeholders should encourage and recognize their participation in and contributions to peer education, community mobilization, and community development initiatives.

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4
Disaster risk reduction and conflict mitigation

National authorities, the local community, and humanitarian actors should use local resources to develop, adapt, and share information on DRR education and community response preparedness. When community resources are used to develop, adapt, and deliver education, it is important to draw from and strengthen positive local coping strategies, technical and scientific knowledge, and capacities for disaster risk management. For example, engaging community members and using local materials to design, rebuild, or retrofit learning environments makes it easier for the community to take responsibility for maintaining these spaces over the long term. Local and indigenous knowledge of the land and how to adapt to environmental changes can support DRR, building resilience, and sustainable development.

When actors mobilize resources in an environment where resources are scarce, they must adhere to conflict sensitive and “do no harm” principles (for more guidance, see INEE Guidance Note on Conflict Sensitive Education). To assess whether resources are being mobilized in conflict sensitive ways, it is important to consider the following:

  • Who is providing the resource
  • How the resource affects the relationship between the education activity and dynamics of the conflict or crisis
  • How the resource will affect the provision of equal and equitable access to education for all learners
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Supporting Resources

Supporting Resources
14 September 2022 Manual/Handbook/Guide Education Cannot Wait (ECW), Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE), United Nations Girls Education Initiative (UNGEI)

EiE-GenKit

The EiE-GenKit is a core resource package for gender in education in emergencies. The EiE-GenKit is the first resource of its kind, providing education practitioners with practical tools to promote gender-responsive programming  from crisis to peace and sustainable development.

15 August 2022 Background Paper Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE)

INEE Background Paper on Distance Education in Emergencies

This background paper highlights specific challenges, lessons learned, practices, and actions to consider when aiming to provide quality, principles-based distance education (DE) in emergencies. The paper considers inclusion and equity to be key guiding principles for education in general and calls for their application across all education modalities, especially distance education.

1 March 2013 Manual/Handbook/Guide Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE)

INEE Guidance Note on Conflict Sensitive Education

Building upon the INEE Minimum Standards, the INEE Guidance Note on Conflict Sensitive Education offers strategies for developing and implementing conflict sensitive education (CSE) programmes and policies.

9 July 2019 Manual/Handbook/Guide Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE), United Nations Girls Education Initiative (UNGEI)

INEE Guidance Note on Gender

The INEE Guidance Note on Gender provides strategies to ensure that girls, boys, women, and men in contexts of conflict and crisis equally enjoy the protection and learning outcomes that quality education can provide.

29 June 2018 Manual/Handbook/Guide Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE)

INEE Guidance Note on Psychosocial Support

The purpose of the INEE Guidance Note on Psychosocial Support is to clarify the importance of supporting the psychosocial wellbeing of children and youth, and to offer specific strategies for how to incorporate psychosocial support (PSS) into education responses.

24 May 2022 Manual/Handbook/Guide Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE)

Guidance Note on Teacher Wellbeing in Emergency Settings

This INEE Minimum Standards-aligned Guidance Note is an opportunity to put teacher wellbeing at the center of our response and recovery efforts in conflict and crisis affected settings. Not just because an investment in teachers is an investment in children and adolescents, but because at this moment in history teachers deserve our unparalleled attention as an end unto itself. 

Indicators

Untitled Spreadsheet
INEE Domain INEE Standard Indicator/Program Requirements Clarification Numerator Denominator Target Disaggregation Source of Indicator Source of Data Available Tool Crisis Phase
Foundational Standards Community Participation Participation (FDN/Community Participation Std 1)

Community members participate actively, transparently, and without discrimination in analysis, planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of education responses.
1.1 Percentage of parents actively participating in the conception and implementation of education in emergencies services Number of parents consulted Number of parents To be defined by program Gender Based on OCHA Indicator Registry Program documentation No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
1.2 Percentage of parents satisfied with the quality and appropriateness of response at the end of the project Number of parents satisfied with the quality and appropriateness of response at the end of the project Number of parents 100% NA Based on OCHA Indicator Registry Program documentation Tool required All stages
Resources (FDN/Community Participation Std 2)

Community resources are identified, mobilized and used to implement age-appropriate learning opportunities.
1.3 Analysis of opportunity to use local resources is carried out and acted on Scale 1-5 (1 = low, 5 = high) 5 NA New Program/procurement documentation Tool required All stages
Coordination Coordination (FDN/Coordination Std 1)

Coordination mechanisms for education are in place to support stakeholders working to ensure access to and continuity of quality education.
1.4 Percentage of regular relevant coordination mechanism (i.e., Education Cluster, EiEWG, LEGs) meetings attended by program team Number of regular relevant coordination mechanism (i.e.; Education Cluster, EiE Working Group (WG), Local Education Group (LEG) meetings attended by program team Number of regular relevant coordination mechanism (i.e. Education Cluster, EiEWG, LEGs) meetings held during organizational presence 100% NA New Meeting records No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
Analysis Assessment (FDN/Analysis Std 1)

Timely education assessments of the emergency situation are conducted in a holistic, transparent, and participatory manner.
1.5 Percentage of education needs assessments, carried out by the relevant coordinating body the program has participated in These include initial rapid and ongoing/rolling assessments Number of assessments organization contributed to Number of possible assessments organization could have contributed to 100% NA New Assessment records No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
Response Strategies (FDN/Analysis Std 2)

Inclusive education response strategies include a clear description of the context, barriers to the right to education, and strategies to overcome those barriers.
1.6 Strength of analysis of context, of barriers to the right to education, and of strategies to overcome those barriers Scale 1-5 (1 = low, 5 = high) 5 NA New Program documentation Tool required All stages
Monitoring (FDN/Analysis Std 3)

Regular monitoring of education response activities and the evolving learning needs of the affected population is carried out.
1.7 Percentage of education needs assessments carried out in defined time period Frequency to be defined by organization. Monitoring measures should be relevant to the desired program outcomes Number of education needs assessments carried out per year Number of education needs assessments required per year 100% NA New M&E plans and results No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient During program implementation
Evaluation (FDN/Analysis Std 4)

Systematic and impartial evaluations improve education response
activities and enhance accountability.
1.8 Number of evaluations carried out Number of evaluations carried out NA NA New M&E plans and results No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient Program completion
1.9 Percentage of evaluations shared with parents Number of evaluations shared with parents Number of evaluations 100% NA New M&E plans and results No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient Program completion