Domain
Domain 4: Teachers and Other Education Personnel

Standards in this domain cover administration and management of human resources in the field of education. This includes recruitment and selection, conditions of service, and supervision and support.

INEE MS Domain 4 Map

 

Related Resources

Key Actions and Guidance for:

A sufficient number of appropriately qualified teachers and other education personnel are recruited through a participatory and transparent process, based on selection criteria reflecting diversity and equity.

Key Actions

Clear, appropriate, non-discriminatory job descriptions and guidelines are developed before the recruitment process

See Guidance Notes:

A representative selection committee selects teachers and other education personnel based on transparent criteria and an assessment of competencies, taking into account community acceptance, gender and diversity

See Guidance Notes:

The number of teachers and other education personnel recruited and deployed is sufficient to avoid over-sized classes

See Guidance Notes:

Guidance Notes
1
Job descriptions

Job descriptions do not discriminate on the basis of gender, ethnicity, religion, disability or other areas of diversity. They include at a minimum:

  • roles and responsibilities;
  • clear reporting lines;
  • a code of conduct.
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2
Experience and qualifications

It is important to recruit qualified teachers with recognised credentials. They need skills to provide psychosocial support for learners and to teach learners with disabilities. If qualified teachers no longer have certificates or other documents because of the emergency, their teaching skills should be assessed. If there are not enough qualified teachers, those with little or no teaching experience may need to be considered. Training will be required for these teachers, based on an assessment of their education level and teaching experience.

Teachers speaking the mother-tongue language(s) of learners should be recruited whenever possible. Where necessary and appropriate, it is recommended that intensive courses in the national or host country language(s) be provided.

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3
Criteria for the selection of teachers

Criteria for the selection of teachers may include the following:

Professional qualifications and attributes:

  • academic background;
  • teaching experience, including teaching children with disabilities;
  • sensitivity to the psychosocial needs of children and youth;
  • trade or other technical skills and experience;
  • relevant language ability, which may include local sign language knowledge and Braille.

Personal qualifications:

  • age and gender, keeping in mind gender balance;
  • tolerance;
  • ethnic and religious background;
  • diversity reflecting that of the community. It is important to consider underlying social tensions and longstanding inequalities, which may have an effect on the recruitment process

Other qualifications:

Teachers and other education personnel should interact with and be accepted by the community. They should be selected, if possible, primarily from the affected community because of their understanding of the social, economic and political issues faced locally. If teachers and other education personnel are accepted from outside the community, it may be necessary to consider additional compensation such as transportation and accommodation. If a learning site is established for refugees or internally displaced people, hiring eligible teachers and other education personnel from the host community may help to foster good relations.

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4
References

Where possible, the references of all recruited teachers and other education personnel should be checked to try to ensure that learners are not put at risk.

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5
Class size

It is important to set locally defined, realistic limits on class size, which allow the inclusion of all children and youth, including those with disabilities. Enough teachers should be recruited to ensure an appropriate teacher-student ratio. Stakeholders should consider the relevant national and local standards for teacher-student ratio and instruction. In some cases, humanitarian and development organisations may have their own standards for teacher-student ratios. A ratio of 1 to 40 has been recommended in some cases. However, stakeholders are encouraged to review and determine what is locally appropriate and realistic.

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Teachers and other education personnel have clearly defined conditions of work and are appropriately compensated.

Key Actions

Compensation systems and conditions of work are coordinated among all relevant stakeholders

See Guidance Notes:

Compensation and conditions of work are described in contracts, and compensation is provided regularly

See Guidance Notes:

Teachers and other education personnel are allowed to organise to negotiate terms and conditions.

A code of conduct, which includes clear implementation guidelines, exists and is well respected

See Guidance Notes:

Guidance Notes
1
Conditions of work

Job descriptions, descriptions of working conditions and codes of conduct should be included in a contract. This helps to professionalise the role of teachers in the learning environment and community. It defines the services expected from teachers in return for compensation from communities, education authorities and other stakeholders, and provides a framework for appropriate and expected teacher behaviour.

The contract should specify:

  • job tasks and responsibilities;
  • compensation;
  • attendance requirements;
  • hours and days of work;
  • length of contract;
  • code of conduct;
  • support, supervision and dispute resolution mechanisms.
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2
Compensation

Adequate compensation is sufficient to enable teachers and other education personnel to focus on their professional work without having to seek additional sources of income to meet their basic needs. Where needed, an appropriate payment system for teachers and other education personnel should be reestablished or developed as soon as possible. The payment system should respect the fact that education authorities have the principal responsibility for ensuring compensation. Coordination among relevant stakeholders, including education authorities, unions, community members, committees and associations, UN agencies and NGOs, lays the foundation for sustainable compensation policy and practice, and helps in the transition from recovery to development.

Compensation can be monetary or non-monetary. The system should be equitable and sustainable. Once implemented, compensation policies set a precedent that teachers and other education personnel will expect to be maintained. In situations of displacement, qualified teachers and other education personnel may be more likely to move where there are higher wages, even if it means crossing borders. It is important to take into account market forces such as:

  • the cost of living;
  • demand for teachers and other professionals;
  • wage levels in similarly qualified professions, such as health care;
  • the availability of qualified teachers and other education personnel.

Compensation depends on adhering to the conditions of work and the code of conduct. Conflicts of interest should be avoided, including situations where teachers privately charge students fees for teaching and tutoring.

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3
A code of conduct

A code of conduct sets clear standards of behaviour for teachers and other education personnel. These standards apply in the learning environment and during education events and activities. The code of conduct specifies mandatory consequences for persons who do not comply. It includes commitments that teachers and other education personnel will:

  • respect, protect and, within their ability, fulfil the education rights of learners;
  • maintain high standards of conduct and ethical behaviour;
  • actively remove barriers to education to ensure a non-discriminatory environment in which all learners are accepted;
  • maintain a protective, healthy and inclusive environment, free from sexual and other harassment, exploitation of learners for labour or sexual favours, intimidation, abuse, violence and discrimination;
  • not teach or encourage knowledge or actions that contradict human rights and non-discrimination principles;
  • maintain regular attendance and punctuality.
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Support and supervision mechanisms for teachers and other education personnel function effectively

Key Actions

Adequate teaching and learning materials and space are available

See Guidance Notes:

Teachers and other education personnel are involved in professional development that contributes to their motivation and support

See Guidance Notes:

A transparent, accountable supervisory mechanism provides for regular assessment, monitoring and support for teachers and other education personnel

See Guidance Notes:

Performance appraisals for teachers and other education personnel are conducted, documented and discussed regularly

See Guidance Notes:

Students regularly have the opportunity to provide feedback on the performance of teachers and other education personnel

See Guidance Notes:

Appropriate, accessible and practical psychosocial support is available to teachers and other education personnel

See Guidance Notes:

Guidance Notes
1
Teaching and learning materials and space

Teaching and learning materials and space should be adequate to allow teachers and other education personnel to teach and work effectively.

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2
Support and supervisory mechanisms

Effective management, supervision and accountability are vital to providing professional support and maintaining teacher motivation and teaching quality. Systems should be developed as far as possible under the leadership of the relevant education authorities and with the participation of education unions, community members, committees and associations, UN agencies and NGOs. Mentoring and peer support can motivate teachers and other education personnel by helping them to set goals and recognise steps that need to be taken to improve their performance.

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3
Capacity building, training and professional development

It is important to consult with teachers and other education personnel about their motivation, incentives, needs and priorities for capacity-building. This helps to identify pre-service and in-service needs and opportunities for professional development. Capacity building, training and professional development should be provided in a non-discriminatory way.

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4
Performance appraisals

Well-conducted performance appraisals support good performance. Assessment of the efficiency and effectiveness of teachers and other education personnel includes discussion with each individual to identify issues and agree on follow-up activities.

A performance appraisal process may include:

  • developing criteria to support classroom observations and evaluations;
  • providing feedback;
  • setting goals and targets to measure growth and progress.
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5
Learners’ participation

Including learners in assessment and evaluation processes is important. It helps in understanding all aspects of the learning environment and in assuring quality. Learners may periodically provide feedback to neutral parties as part of performance appraisal processes. Topics can include teaching performance, behaviour, concerns about the teaching environment and protection issues.

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6
Psychosocial support and well-being

Even trained and experienced teachers and other education personnel may find themselves overwhelmed by crisis events. They face new challenges and responsibilities and may experience distress. Their ability to cope and provide for learners depends on their own well-being and available support.

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