Diagnostic tools for improving education policy planning: a case study on Yemen girls dropout in primary education in emergencies
Political instability, crisis, and wars that have existed since 2011 have led to complex challenges and obstacles to Yemen’s education system, resulting in high rates of illiteracy and dropout of girls in schools. Girls aged between 6–14 are regarded as one of the most vulnerable groups in Yemen. There has been an increase in girls’ dropout in primary education as a result of the ongoing war and conflict in the country. As such, this case study focuses on the school completion of girls in primary education in public schools at the ages of 6–14. The research focuses on the population at large for the school period of 2014–2018.
This report draws on data from the last Education Management Information System (EMIS) report (2016), the educational survey done by the Ministry of Education in 2016, the Yemen Country Report on Out-of-School Children (2015), and from reports of major international organizations like UNICEF, Save the Children, OCHA, and the World.
Using the IIEP Policy Trees, several indicators were identified— that is, enrolment rates in primary education by the governorate, the rates of gross enrolment of both girls and boys in primary education at public schools, etc. Based on the data and using the pathways of the decision tree, the analysis found that the war led to decreased enrolment rates (91.0% to 87.05% for boys and 77.15% to 73.97% for girls) and completion rates (52.4% to 44.9% for boys and 42.6% to 36%).
Potential root causes were identified and are as follows: : (i) economic barriers, (ii) displacement, (iii) insecurity, and (iv) physical damage to school buildings and infrastructure, especially those located in or near conflict areas.
To address the economic barriers that have been accelerated by the conflict, the following policy options are recommended: (i) provide economic incentives, (ii) provide income-generating activities for families (i.e., providing monthly school feeding for both girls and their teachers at primary schools), (iii) establish a joint fund between NGOs and official governmental partners for supporting girls’ education, and (iv) build flexible learning strategies/alternative learning programmes.
To address teacher-related constraints, it is suggested: (i) to develop partners with communities and NGOs to pay teacher salaries, (ii) to increase teacher motivation and satisfaction, and (iii) to shorten the school week.