Redução do Risco de Desastres

A redução do risco de desastres (RRD) é, simultaneamente, o conceito e a prática de redução de riscos através de esforços sistemáticos para analisar e gerir os fatores causais dos desastres, incluindo a redução da exposição a perigos, redução da vulnerabilidade de pessoas e bens, boa gestão da terra e do meio ambiente, e melhor preparação para acontecimentos adversos.

Não existem desastres 'naturais', apenas ameaças ou perigos, estes sim, naturais. A redução do risco de desastre visa reduzir o dano causado por ameaças e perigos naturais tais como como terramotos, inundações, cheias, secas e ciclones, entre outros, através de uma lógica de ética preventiva.

Os desastres seguem, muitas vezes, as ameaças naturais. A gravidade de uma catástrofe depende do impacto que uma ameaça tem sobre a sociedade e sobre o meio-ambiente. Por sua vez, a escala do impacto depende das escolhas que fazemos para as nossas vidas e para o nosso meio-ambiente. Essas escolhas estão relacionadas, por exemplo, como a forma como cultivamos os nossos alimentos, onde e como construímos as nossas casas e escolas, que modelo de governo está instalado, forma de funcionamento do sistema financeiro e, ainda, o que ensinamos nas escolas. Cada decisão e ação torna-nos mais vulneráveis ou mais resilientes a desastres.

Os alunos e as alunas precisam ter acesso à educação. No entanto, o acesso a uma qualquer sala de aula não é suficiente. As escolas devem ser capazes de resistir a potenciais ameaças e serem seguras para todas as pessoas. Em situações de desastre, as alunas e os alunos, funcionários, funcionárias e famílias sofrem graves traumas mentais e físicos. O facto das escolas serem inseguras pode significar a possibilidade de uma maior número de pessoas ficarem feridas ou mesmo morrerem. Anos de aprendizagem podem ser perdidos à medida que as comunidades se concentram no processo de recuperação destas situações e não na educação. Os alunos e as alunas que se vejam privados de frequentar a escola diariamente podem ser vulneráveis ao abuso, negligência, violência e exploração. Experiência de situações de desastres recentes destacam o quão vulneráveis são as escolas. Mais ainda, a perda emocional sentida pela comunidade sobrevivente, em cada caso, é impossível de medir. 

Devem ser incorporados elementos de redução do risco de desastres nos currículos formais e nas atividades extra-curriculares, desde os níveis e educação primária até à secundária. Projectar a integração ao nível do ensino superior pode ser também um meio prático para reforçar a capacidade de redução de desastres. De facto, a integração de questões relacionadas com o risco de desastres nos currículos educativos já existentes contribui para a aprendizagem contínua e reforça o conhecimento sobre a redução do risco de desastres.

 

Esta coleção foi desenvolvida com o apoio de Marla Petal, Assessora para a Resiliência Urbana e Segurança Escolar da Save the Children, e Kate McFarlane, Assessora para a Redução de Riscos Centrada na Criança, Segurança Escolar e Gestão do Conhecimento da Save the Children.

Manual/Handbook/Guide

INEE Guidance Notes on Safer School Construction

Publicado por
Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE)
,
Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery

These guidance notes have been developed for policymakers and planners of local, regional and national government bodies and all other organizations interested or engaged in enhancing the safety of school populations and the resiliency of the buildings they occupy.

Arabic
Bahasa Indonesia
Chinese (Mandarin)
English
French
Hindi
Spanish
Training Material

EiE Harmonized Training Module 12: Risk Reduction

Publicado por
Global Education Cluster
Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE)

At the end of this session participants will be able to understand what is meant by Risk Reduction, Emergency Preparedness, and Contingency Planning; understand the Hyogo Framework for Action; identify risk reduction and preparedness activities; and create contingency plans based on likely emergencies in their country/district.

English
French
Video media

10 Things You Should Know About Disaster Risk Reduction

Publicado por
Humanitarian Practice Network

This Good Practice Review identifies and discusses the principles and practice of disaster risk reduction (DRR), drawing on experiences from around the world.

Bahasa Indonesia
Chinese (Mandarin)
English
French
Spanish
White Paper

Disaster Prevention: A Safe Foundation for Full Inclusion

Publicado por
United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR)

White paper on disaster prevention, with a focus on a safe foundation for full inclusion.The World Education Forum’s Dakar Framework for Action: Education for All (EFA) (UNESCO, 2000) acknowledged that natural hazards pose significant challenges to countries in meeting their EFA goals, and would require international level support. 

English
Book/eBook

Disaster Risk Reduction - Good Practice Review 9

Publicado por
Good Practice Review (GPR)

This Good Practice Review identifies and discusses the principles and practice of disaster risk reduction (DRR), drawing on experiences from around the world. The book is intended primarily for practitioners, principally project planners and managers already working in the DRR field or planning to undertake DRR initiatives, mainly at subnational and local levels.

English
Video media

Education for Disaster Preparedness

Publicado por
United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Office (UNESCO)

This video provides thorough information on education for disaster preparedness. EDP can provide life-saving and life-sustaining information and skills that protect in particular children and young people during and after emergencies.

English
Video media

Safer School Construction: An Introduction

Publicado por
Global Alliance for Disaster Risk Reduction and Resilience in the Education Sector (GADRRRES)

This is a small introduction to Safe School Construction. Students need access to education. However access to any classroom is not enough. Schools must withstand potential hazards and be safe for all.

English
Report

Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030

Publicado por
United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR)

The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 outlines seven clear targets and four priorities for action to prevent new and reduce existing disaster risks.

Arabic
Chinese (Mandarin)
English
French
Russian
Spanish
Video media

The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction

Publicado por
United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR)

Video explaining the Sendai framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. The Sendai Framework is a 15-year, voluntary, non-binding agreement which recognizes that the State has the primary role to reduce disaster risk but that responsibilities are to be shared with other stakeholders including local government and the private sector.

English
Manual/Handbook/Guide

Towards Safer School Construction: A community-based approach

Publicado por
Global Alliance for Disaster Risk Reduction and Resilience in the Education Sector (GADRRRES)

The focus of this manual is on the process of community- based school construction. This manual  also shows how community-based approaches to safer school construction can do more than just provide safer school buildings in hazard-prone places.

English
Project Brief

Worldwide Initiative for Safe Schools

Publicado por
Global Alliance for Disaster Risk Reduction and Resilience in the Education Sector (GADRRRES)
United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR)

The Worldwide Initiative for Safe Schools will focus efforts on motivating and supporting Governments in high risk and low capacity countries to implement school safety according to the three pillars highlighted as part of the Global School Safety Framework.

English
Website

Safer School Construction: A Community-Based Approach

Publicado por
Global Alliance for Disaster Risk Reduction and Resilience in the Education Sector (GADRRRES)

All schools should be durable and functional, even after a disaster. The safer schools construction approach treats construction as a community learning opportunity. It works to build the community’s resilience, skills and abilities, and results in safer school buildings. When laying foundations and raising walls, communities become knowledgeable caretakers of their schools. 

English
French
Arabic
Spanish
Nepali
Website

Safe Children, Safe Schools Community

Publicado por
Global Alliance for Disaster Risk Reduction and Resilience in the Education Sector (GADRRRES)

The Safe Children, Safe Schools Community brings together a large network of researchers, practitioners (NGOs) and policy makers who are committed to contributing towards child-centred risk reduction and resilience, and school safety.

English
Emergency Update/Report

Education Sector Snapshot for Comprehensive School Safety (CSS) and Education in Emergencies (EiE)

Publicado por
Global Alliance for Disaster Risk Reduction and Resilience in the Education Sector (GADRRRES)

The Education Sector Snapshot for Comprehensive School Safety (CSS) and Education in Emergencies (EiE) provides a report of country-level information on risk and Comprehensive School Safety. Currently, Snapshots have been developed for more than 15 countries.

English