Standard 2: Conditions of Work

Teachers and other education personnel have clearly defined conditions of work and are appropriately compensated.

Key Actions

Compensation systems and conditions of work are coordinated among all relevant stakeholders

See Guidance Notes:

Compensation and conditions of work are described in contracts, and compensation is provided regularly

See Guidance Notes:

Teachers and other education personnel are allowed to organise to negotiate terms and conditions.

A code of conduct, which includes clear implementation guidelines, exists and is well respected

See Guidance Notes:

Guidance Notes
1
Conditions of work

Job descriptions, descriptions of working conditions and codes of conduct should be included in a contract. This helps to professionalise the role of teachers in the learning environment and community. It defines the services expected from teachers in return for compensation from communities, education authorities and other stakeholders, and provides a framework for appropriate and expected teacher behaviour.

The contract should specify:

  • job tasks and responsibilities;
  • compensation;
  • attendance requirements;
  • hours and days of work;
  • length of contract;
  • code of conduct;
  • support, supervision and dispute resolution mechanisms.
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2
Compensation

Adequate compensation is sufficient to enable teachers and other education personnel to focus on their professional work without having to seek additional sources of income to meet their basic needs. Where needed, an appropriate payment system for teachers and other education personnel should be reestablished or developed as soon as possible. The payment system should respect the fact that education authorities have the principal responsibility for ensuring compensation. Coordination among relevant stakeholders, including education authorities, unions, community members, committees and associations, UN agencies and NGOs, lays the foundation for sustainable compensation policy and practice, and helps in the transition from recovery to development.

Compensation can be monetary or non-monetary. The system should be equitable and sustainable. Once implemented, compensation policies set a precedent that teachers and other education personnel will expect to be maintained. In situations of displacement, qualified teachers and other education personnel may be more likely to move where there are higher wages, even if it means crossing borders. It is important to take into account market forces such as:

  • the cost of living;
  • demand for teachers and other professionals;
  • wage levels in similarly qualified professions, such as health care;
  • the availability of qualified teachers and other education personnel.

Compensation depends on adhering to the conditions of work and the code of conduct. Conflicts of interest should be avoided, including situations where teachers privately charge students fees for teaching and tutoring.

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3
A code of conduct

A code of conduct sets clear standards of behaviour for teachers and other education personnel. These standards apply in the learning environment and during education events and activities. The code of conduct specifies mandatory consequences for persons who do not comply. It includes commitments that teachers and other education personnel will:

  • respect, protect and, within their ability, fulfil the education rights of learners;
  • maintain high standards of conduct and ethical behaviour;
  • actively remove barriers to education to ensure a non-discriminatory environment in which all learners are accepted;
  • maintain a protective, healthy and inclusive environment, free from sexual and other harassment, exploitation of learners for labour or sexual favours, intimidation, abuse, violence and discrimination;
  • not teach or encourage knowledge or actions that contradict human rights and non-discrimination principles;
  • maintain regular attendance and punctuality.
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Resources

Related Resources
Manual/Handbook/Guide

INEE Guidance Notes on Teacher Compensation

Published by
Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE)

The Guidance Notes on Teacher Compensation and related materials (available in English, French, Spanish, and Arabic) provide a framework for determining appropriate compensation for teachers in crisis contexts.

Arabic
English
French
Spanish

Indicators

Untitled Spreadsheet
INEE Domain INEE Standard Indicator/Program Requirements Clarification Numerator Denominator Target Disaggregation Source of Indicator Source of Data Available Tool Crisis Phase
Teachers and Other Education Personnel Recruitment & Selection (TEOP Std 1)

A sufficient number of appropriately qualified teachers and other education personnel are recruited through a participatory and transparent process, based on selection criteria reflecting diversity and equity.
4.1 Education personnel selection process is transparent, based on selection criteria that reflect diversity and equity Scale 1-5 (1 = low, 5 = high) 5 NA New School/program administrative data/documentation Tool required All stages
4.2 Pupil-trained teacher ratio Number of students Number of trained teachers Equal to or below the national average NA UNESCO School/program administrative data No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
4.3 Percentage of male/female teachers/administrators Number of male/female teachers and/or administrators Number of teachers and/or administrators 50% Gender ECW School/program administrative data No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
4.4 Percentage of teachers from minority groups Number of teachers from minority groups Number of teachers To be defined by percentage of minority groups in relevant community Gender
Ethnicity
Mother tongue
Wealth quintile
Disability
Displacement status
As relevant
New School/program administrative data No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
Conditions of Work (TEOP Std 2)

Teachers and other education personnel have clearly defined conditions of work and are appropriately compensated.
4.5 Percentage of targeted learning spaces in which a code of conduct (i) exists (ii) is enforced and (iii) teachers and communities are trained in / informed about its application Measures the application of codes of conduct for teachers and administrators in programs. Codes of conduct are developed locally and should reflect the different contexts of operations, rather than being "one-size-fits-all." Figures can be provided based on surveys or estimates. To qualify, learning spaces should display all of (i), (ii), and (iii).
Number of targeted learning spaces whereby a code of conduct (i) exists, (ii) is enforced, and (iii) teachers and communities are trained in / informed about its application Number of targeted learning spaces 100% Formal vs non-formal ECW School/program administrative data Tool required All stages
4.6 Percentage of teachers receiving equal/equitable compensation (based on gender, ethnicity, religion; pending context) for same position Number of teachers receiving equitable compensation compared to other teachers at the same level Number of teachers at each level 100% Gender
Ethnicity
Mother tongue
Wealth quintile
Disability
Displacement status
As relevant
New School/program administrative data No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
4.7 Percentage of teachers and other education personnel compensated Adequate levels of compensation should be defined by the program Number of teachers and other education personnel compensated Number of teachers and other education personnel 100% Gender
Ethnicity
Mother tongue
Wealth quintile
Disability
Displacement status
As relevant
ECW School/program administrative data No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
4.8 Percentage of teachers and other education personnel who have signed a contract specifying their compensation and conditions of work Numbers of teachers and other education personnel who have signed contracts specifying compensation and conditions of work Number of teachers and other education personnel 100% Gender
Ethnicity
Mother tongue
Wealth quintile
Disability
Displacement status
As relevant
New School/program administrative data, teacher survey No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
4.9 Percentage of teachers supported through coordinated conditions of work across education actors/partners Job descriptions, descriptions of working conditions, and codes of conduct should be included in contracts. These should specify
- job tasks and responsibilities;
- compensation;
- attendance requirements;
- hours and days of work;
- length of contract;
- code of conduct;
- support, supervision and dispute resolution mechanisms.
Number of teachers supported through coordinated conditions of work across education actors/partners Number of teachers 100% Gender
Ethnicity
Mother tongue
Wealth quintile
Disability
Displacement status
As relevant
New School/program administrative data, teacher survey No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
4.10 Percentage of targeted learning spaces that have clear disciplinary actions in place for teachers, school leaders, and administrators who have broken the code of conduct Number of targeted learning spaces that have clear disciplinary actions in place for teachers, school leaders, and administrators who have broken the code of conduct
Number of targeted learning spaces 100% Formal vs non-formal ECW School/program administrative data, teacher survey No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
4.11 Percentage of teachers supported through coordinated compensation agreements across education actors/partners Number of teachers supported through coordinated compensation agreements across education actors/partners Number of teachers 100% Gender
Ethnicity
Mother tongue
Wealth quintile
Disability
Displacement status
As relevant
New School/program administrative data, teacher survey No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
Support & Supervision (TEOP Std 3)

Support and supervision mechanisms for teachers and other education personnel function effectively.
4.12 Percentage of teachers who report having adequate teaching and learning materials and teaching and preparation space Number of teachers who report having adequate teaching and learning materials and teaching space Number of teachers 100% Gender New Teacher survey No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
4.13 Percentage of teachers reporting being sufficiently supported by school leadership Number of teachers who report being sufficiently supported by school leadership Number of teachers 100% Gender New Teacher survey No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
4.14 Percentage of teaching personnel participating in collaborative opportunities with other teachers/administrators Number of teaching personnel participating in collaborative opportunities with other teachers/administrators Number of teachers 100% Gender New School/program administrative data, teacher survey No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
4.15 Percentage of teaching personnel participating in ongoing coaching/mentoring sessions Ongoing support differentiates from one-off training sessions Number of teaching personnel participating in ongoing coaching/mentoring sessions Number of teachers 100% Gender TiCC School/program administrative data, teacher survey No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
4.16 Percentage of teachers who report having sufficient planning time Number of teachers who report having sufficient planning time Number of teachers 100% Gender Modified TiCC Teacher survey No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
4.17 Percentage of teaching personnel evaluated/supported through transparent performance appraisal process Number of teaching personnel evaluated/supported through transparent performance appraisal process Number of teachers 100% Gender Modified TiCC School/program administrative data, teacher survey No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages