Standard 3: Instruction and Learning Processes
Instruction and learning processes are learner-centred, participatory and inclusive.
Instruction and learning processes address the needs of all learners, including those with disabilities, by promoting inclusiveness and reducing barriers to learning
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Parents and community leaders understand and accept the learning content and teaching methods used
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Learners’ active engagement is important at every developmental and age level. Teaching should be interactive and participatory, ensuring that all learners are involved in the lesson. It makes use of developmentally appropriate teaching and learning methods. This may involve group work, project work, peer education, role-play, telling stories or describing events, games, videos or stories. These methods should be incorporated into teacher training, school textbooks and training programmes. Existing curricula may need to be adapted to accommodate active learning.
Young children learn through play. Their learning should be based on active play and interaction. Guided play may build skills and relationships with both peers and teachers. Parents and primary care-givers of very young children should be supported to understand and apply:
- the importance of being responsive and sensitive to the needs of the children;
- ways to care for younger children;
- play methods that actively engage children in the learning process and promote their development.
Teachers should be supported to talk with parents, community members, education authorities and other relevant stakeholders about the importance of formal and non-formal education activities in emergency settings. They may discuss issues of rights, diversity and inclusion and the importance of reaching out to children and young people who are not taking part in education activities. These discussions are important to ensure that people understand and support the inclusion of all children and the provision of appropriate resource materials and facilities. Groups such as parent- teacher associations, school management and community education committees may be mobilised to help identify barriers to learning and to develop plans to address them at the community level.
Education in emergencies through to recovery should o er teachers in a formal education setting an opportunity for positive change. Teaching methods may be changed to be adaptable and acceptable to the context and should address the rights, needs, age, disabilities and capacities of learners. However, more participatory or learner-friendly teaching methods should be introduced with care and sensitivity. Implementation of new methodologies, particularly during the initial stages of an emergency, may be stressful even for experienced teachers. This may also affect learners, parents and community members.
Changes should be introduced with the approval, coordination and support of education authorities. It may take time for the school and the community to understand and accept these changes. It is important to ensure that the concerns of parents and other community members are addressed. Teachers need to be familiar with new content and with changes expected in their awareness and behaviour.
For non-formal education interventions, learner-centred approaches may be introduced through the training and continued support of volunteers, animators, facilitators and care-givers. Methodologies should be appropriate to the curriculum, addressing core competencies of basic education including literacy, numeracy and life skills relevant to the emergency context.
|INEE Domain||INEE Standard||Indicator/Program Requirements||Clarification||Numerator||Denominator||Target||Disaggregation||Source of Indicator||Source of Data||Available Tool||Crisis Phase|
|Teaching and Learning||Curricula (T&L Std 1)
Culturally, socially and linguistically relevant curricula are used to provide formal and non-formal education, appropriate to the particular context and needs of learners.
|3.1 Pupil-textbook ratio||Number of students||Number of textbooks||1:1||Level of education
|New||School administrative data||Right to Education Monitoring Guide||All stages|
|3.2 Percentage of targeted learning spaces whose learning materials meet minimum quality standards||Curricula, textbooks, and other learning materials should be inclusive, conflict-sensitive, gender-transformative, promote SEL and PSS, etc.||Number of targeted learning spaces where learning materials meet minimum standards of quality||Number of targeted learning spaces||100%||Formal vs non-formal||New||Learning material analysis||Tool required||All stages|
|3.3 Percentage of students in the right grade for their age||Number of students at a grade level appropriate to within one year of their age||Number students||100%||Level of education
|New||School administrative data||No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient||All stages|
|3.4 Percentage of targeted crisis-affected children and youth benefiting from relevant skills development (SEL / PSS / risk awareness / environmental education / conflict prevention)||Number of targeted crisis-affected children and youth benefiting from relevant skills development (SEL/PSS/risk awareness/ environmental education/conflict prevention)||Number of identified crisis-affected children and youth needing relevant skills development (SEL/PSS/risk awareness/ environmental education/conflict prevention)||100%||Level of education
|New||Learning outcome measures||Tool required||All stages|
|3.5 Percentage of targeted learning spaces utilizing curriculum aligned to national standards||In formal settings, the national curriculum should be used. In non-formal settings, the curriculum should be appropriate and compatible with the national curriculum.||Number of targeted learning spaces utilizing curriculum aligned to national standards
||Number of targeted learning spaces
||100%||Formal vs non-formal||New||Program documentation||Tool required||All stages|
|Training, Professional Development and Support (T&L Std 2)
Teachers and other education personnel receive periodic, relevant and structured training according to needs and circumstances.
|3.6 Percentage of teachers who show increased understanding of and practice Teacher’s Role & Well-being; Child Protection, Well-being; Inclusion; Pedagogy; Curriculum & Planning; and Subject Knowledge||Number of teachers who show increased understanding of and practice Teacher’s Role & Well-being; Child Protection, Well-being; Inclusion; Pedagogy; Curriculum & Planning; and Subject Knowledge||Number of teachers||100%||Gender||TiCC||Classroom observation, teacher survey||World Bank's open-source classroom observation tool Teach||All stages|
|3.7 Teacher satisfaction level with TPD activity/activities they have participated in||Number of teachers satisfied with TPD activities they have participated in||Number of teachers||100%||Gender||TiCC||Teacher survey||Tool required||All stages|
|3.8 Percentage of teachers who report feeling confident in their ability to teach effectively||Number of teachers who report feeling confident in their ability to teach effectively||Number of teachers||100%||Gender||TiCC||Teacher survey||Tool required||All stages|
|3.9 Percentage of teachers and other education personnel benefiting from professional development according to assessed needs||Number of teachers and other education personnel benefiting from professional development according to assessed needs||Number of teachers||100%||Gender||New||Program administrative data||Tool required||All stages|
|3.10 Degree of teacher professional development recognition and/or certification||Number of teachers whose TPD is recognized or certified||Number of teachers||100%||Gender||New||Program documentation||Tool required||All stages|
|Instruction & Learning Processes (T&L Std 3)
Instruction and learning processes are learner-centred, participatory and inclusive.
|3.11 Percentage of teachers whose training included methods for how to engage all students equally and in a participatory way||Number of teachers whose training included methods in how to engage all students equally and in participatory way||Number of teachers||100%||Gender||New||Teacher survey||Tool required||All stages|
|3.12 Appropriateness of teaching methods to the age, developmental level, language, culture, capacities, and needs of learners||Scale 1-5 (1 = low, 5 = high)||5||NA||New||Classroom observation||World Bank's open-source classroom observation tool Teach||All stages|
|3.13 Percentage of teachers who use structures or routines to manage classroom interactions more effectively||Number of teachers who demonsrate effective use of structures or routines for managing classroom interactions||Number of teachers||100%||Gender||New||Classroom observation||World Bank's open-source classroom observation tool Teach||All stages|
|3.14 Frequency of parental engagement in communications that inform them of learning content and teaching methods||Number of parent-teacher engagement sessions||Per year||To be defined by program||NA||New||program documentation||No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient||All stages|
|Assessment of Learning Outcomes (T&L Std 4)
Appropriate methods are used to evaluate and validate learning outcomes.
|3.15 Percentage of teachers capable of assessing learning progress||Number of teachers who are trained in and use continuous student formative learning assessments||Number of teachers||100%||Gender||New||Classroom observation||World Bank's open-source classroom observation tool Teach||All stages|
|3.16 Degree of use of accreditation, certification, and recognition||Measures whether students' learning achievements are formally recognized through accreditation, certification, or some other form of recognition. This is particularly relevant when completing levels, such as primary or secondary||Scale 1-5 (1 = low, 5 = high)||5||NA||New||Program documentation||No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient||All stages|
|3.17 Learning assessments are available in first languages||Number of languages available for assessments||Number of first languages||100%||NA||New||program documentation||No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient||All stages|