Standard 2: Training Professional Development and Support

Teachers and other education personnel receive periodic, relevant and structured training according to needs and circumstances.

Key Actions

Training opportunities are available to male and female teachers and other educational personnel, according to needs

See Guidance Notes:

Training is appropriate to the context and reflects learning objectives and content

See Guidance Notes:

Training is recognised and approved by relevant education authorities

See Guidance Notes:

Qualified trainers conduct training courses that complement in-service training, support, guidance, monitoring and classroom supervision

See Guidance Notes:

Through training and ongoing support, teachers become effective facilitators in the learning environment, using participatory methods of teaching and teaching aids

See Guidance Notes:

Training includes knowledge and skills for formal and non-formal curricula, including hazard awareness, disaster risk reduction and conflict prevention

See Guidance Notes:

Guidance Notes
1
Definition of ‘teacher’

‘Teacher’ refers to instructors, facilitators or animators in formal and non-formal education programmes. Teachers may have different experience and training. They may be older learners or community members.

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2
Development of formal training curricula and content

The development of formal training curricula and content is the responsibility of education authorities. Curricula and content should reflect the needs and rights of learners and the particular needs of education personnel in the context within budget and time constraints.

Training content may include:

  • core subject knowledge, such as literacy, numeracy and life skills appropriate to the context, including health education; 
  • pedagogy and teaching methodologies, including positive discipline and classroom management, participatory approaches and inclusive education; 
  • codes of conduct for teachers and other education personnel, including condemnation of gender-based violence against learners and appropriate report and referral mechanisms; 
  • disaster risk reduction and conflict prevention principles; 
  • psychosocial development and support, including both learners’ and teachers’ needs and the availability of local 
services and referral systems; 
  • human rights principles and perspectives and humanitarian law, to understand their meaning and intention and their direct and indirect connection with learners’ needs and the responsibilities of learners, teachers, communities and education authorities; 
  • other content appropriate to the context. 

Training initiatives should include how to address issues of diversity and discrimination. For instance, gender-sensitive teaching strategies encourage teachers of both sexes to understand and commit to gender equity in classrooms. Training of female education personnel and community members can reinforce positive changes in the classroom and the broader community.

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3
Training support and coordination

Whenever possible, education authorities should take the lead in the design and implementation of formal and non-formal teacher training activities. When education authorities are unable to lead this process, an inter-agency coordination committee can provide guidance and coordination. Training plans should include in-service training and, where necessary, the revitalisation of teacher training institutions and university education facilities. These institutions play a vital role in rebuilding a sustainable education sector.

National education authorities and other relevant stakeholders should start a dialogue about curricula for in-service teacher training and mechanisms for its recognition at the beginning of an emergency response. Where possible, in-service training should be designed to fulfil national requirements for qualified teacher status. Additional elements relevant to the emergency, such as meeting psychosocial needs, should be also incorporated. Where refugee school systems are separate from the local education system, the in-service training of refugee teachers should build towards qualified teacher status in the country of origin or asylum.

Local trainers should be identified to develop and implement appropriate training for teachers. Capacity building of their facilitation and training skills may be needed. A balance of male and female trainers and trainees should be promoted. Where limited numbers of trainers are available, or they are inadequately trained, institutions providing in-service and pre-service teacher training may be strengthened. This should be a coordinated effort by national and regional institutions and external agencies such as UN agencies and NGOs. It may include:

  • review of the teacher training curriculum and textbooks;
  • inclusion of updated and emergency-related content;
  • provision of practical teaching experience, such as serving as teaching assistants or interns.
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4
Training recognition and accreditation

Approval and accreditation by education authorities are crucial to ensure quality and recognition of teacher training in the emergency through to recovery. For refugee teachers, education authorities in the host or home country or area should determine whether the training is acceptable and adapted to the needs of learners and teachers.

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5
Teaching and learning materials

Teachers should be trained on how to identify needs for specific teaching aids based on the curriculum. They should learn how to create effective and appropriate teaching aids using locally available materials.

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6
Hazard awareness, risk reduction and response preparedness

Teachers need skills and knowledge to help learners and the community to prevent and mitigate future disasters. They may need support to integrate the promotion of risk reduction and conflict prevention into teaching and learning. This includes information and skills needed to identify, prevent and respond to potential hazards and disasters faced by communities.

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Resources

Related Resources
Manual/Handbook/Guide

Distance Education for Teacher Training: Modes, Models, and Methods

Published by
Education Development Center (EDC)

This publication is a guide to the type of technology modes, education models, and instructional methods used for teacher pre-service and in-service distance learning across the globe. 

English
Manual/Handbook/Guide

Teachers in Crisis Contexts Peer Coaching Pack

Published by
Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE)

The Teachers in Crisis Contexts (TiCC) Peer Coaching pack provides an additional layer of support for teachers participating in the Training for Primary School Teachers in Crisis Contexts by preparing teachers to use Teacher Learning Circles (TLCs) and Classroom Observations.

English
Manual/Handbook/Guide

Teachers in Crisis Contexts Training for Primary School Teachers

Published by
Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE)

The Training for Primary School Teachers in Crisis Contexts package was developed for unqualified or under-qualified teachers often recruited to teach in refugee camps and in a range of other emergency settings.

Arabic
English
French
Spanish

Indicators

Untitled Spreadsheet
INEE Domain INEE Standard Indicator/Program Requirements Clarification Numerator Denominator Target Disaggregation Source of Indicator Source of Data Available Tool Crisis Phase
Teaching and Learning Curricula (T&L Std 1)

Culturally, socially and linguistically relevant curricula are used to provide formal and non-formal education, appropriate to the particular context and needs of learners.
3.1 Pupil-textbook ratio Number of students Number of textbooks 1:1 Level of education
Gender
Ethnicity
Mother tongue
Wealth quintile
Disability
Displacement status
As relevant
New School administrative data Right to Education Monitoring Guide All stages
3.2 Percentage of targeted learning spaces whose learning materials meet minimum quality standards Curricula, textbooks, and other learning materials should be inclusive, conflict-sensitive, gender-transformative, promote SEL and PSS, etc. Number of targeted learning spaces where learning materials meet minimum standards of quality Number of targeted learning spaces 100% Formal vs non-formal New Learning material analysis Tool required All stages
3.3 Percentage of students in the right grade for their age Number of students at a grade level appropriate to within one year of their age Number students 100% Level of education
Gender
Ethnicity
Mother tongue
Wealth quintile
Disability
Displacement status
As relevant
New School administrative data No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
3.4 Percentage of targeted crisis-affected children and youth benefiting from relevant skills development (SEL / PSS / risk awareness / environmental education / conflict prevention) Number of targeted crisis-affected children and youth benefiting from relevant skills development (SEL/PSS/risk awareness/ environmental education/conflict prevention) Number of identified crisis-affected children and youth needing relevant skills development (SEL/PSS/risk awareness/ environmental education/conflict prevention) 100% Level of education
Gender
Ethnicity
Mother tongue
Wealth quintile
Disability
Displacement status
As relevant
New Learning outcome measures Tool required All stages
3.5 Percentage of targeted learning spaces utilizing curriculum aligned to national standards In formal settings, the national curriculum should be used. In non-formal settings, the curriculum should be appropriate and compatible with the national curriculum. Number of targeted learning spaces utilizing curriculum aligned to national standards
Number of targeted learning spaces
100% Formal vs non-formal New Program documentation Tool required All stages
Training, Professional Development and Support (T&L Std 2)

Teachers and other education personnel receive periodic, relevant and structured training according to needs and circumstances.
3.6 Percentage of teachers who show increased understanding of and practice Teacher’s Role & Well-being; Child Protection, Well-being; Inclusion; Pedagogy; Curriculum & Planning; and Subject Knowledge Number of teachers who show increased understanding of and practice Teacher’s Role & Well-being; Child Protection, Well-being; Inclusion; Pedagogy; Curriculum & Planning; and Subject Knowledge Number of teachers 100% Gender TiCC Classroom observation, teacher survey World Bank's open-source classroom observation tool Teach All stages
3.7 Teacher satisfaction level with TPD activity/activities they have participated in Number of teachers satisfied with TPD activities they have participated in Number of teachers 100% Gender TiCC Teacher survey Tool required All stages
3.8 Percentage of teachers who report feeling confident in their ability to teach effectively Number of teachers who report feeling confident in their ability to teach effectively Number of teachers 100% Gender TiCC Teacher survey Tool required All stages
3.9 Percentage of teachers and other education personnel benefiting from professional development according to assessed needs Number of teachers and other education personnel benefiting from professional development according to assessed needs Number of teachers 100% Gender New Program administrative data Tool required All stages
3.10 Degree of teacher professional development recognition and/or certification Number of teachers whose TPD is recognized or certified Number of teachers 100% Gender New Program documentation Tool required All stages
Instruction & Learning Processes (T&L Std 3)

Instruction and learning processes are learner-centred, participatory and inclusive.
3.11 Percentage of teachers whose training included methods for how to engage all students equally and in a participatory way Number of teachers whose training included methods in how to engage all students equally and in participatory way Number of teachers 100% Gender New Teacher survey Tool required All stages
3.12 Appropriateness of teaching methods to the age, developmental level, language, culture, capacities, and needs of learners Scale 1-5 (1 = low, 5 = high) 5 NA New Classroom observation World Bank's open-source classroom observation tool Teach All stages
3.13 Percentage of teachers who use structures or routines to manage classroom interactions more effectively Number of teachers who demonsrate effective use of structures or routines for managing classroom interactions Number of teachers 100% Gender New Classroom observation World Bank's open-source classroom observation tool Teach All stages
3.14 Frequency of parental engagement in communications that inform them of learning content and teaching methods Number of parent-teacher engagement sessions Per year To be defined by program NA New program documentation No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
Assessment of Learning Outcomes (T&L Std 4)

Appropriate methods are used to evaluate and validate learning outcomes.
3.15 Percentage of teachers capable of assessing learning progress Number of teachers who are trained in and use continuous student formative learning assessments Number of teachers 100% Gender New Classroom observation World Bank's open-source classroom observation tool Teach All stages
3.16 Degree of use of accreditation, certification, and recognition Measures whether students' learning achievements are formally recognized through accreditation, certification, or some other form of recognition. This is particularly relevant when completing levels, such as primary or secondary Scale 1-5 (1 = low, 5 = high) 5 NA New Program documentation No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
3.17 Learning assessments are available in first languages Number of languages available for assessments Number of first languages 100% NA New program documentation No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages