Standard 2: Protection and Well-being

Learning environments are secure and safe, and promote the protection and the psychosocial well-being of learners, teachers and other education personnel.

Key Actions

The learning environment is free from sources of harm to learners, teachers and other education personnel

See Guidance Notes:

Teachers and other education personnel acquire the skills and knowledge needed to create a supportive learning environment and to promote learners’ psychosocial well-being

See Guidance Notes:

Schools, temporary learning spaces and child-friendly spaces are close to the populations they serve

See Guidance Notes:

Access routes to the learning environment are safe, secure and accessible for all

See Guidance Notes:

Learning environments are free from military occupation and attack

See Guidance Notes:

The community contributes to decisions about the location of the learning environment, and about systems and policies to ensure that learners, teachers and other education personnel are safe and secure

See Guidance Notes:

Safe learning environments are maintained through disaster risk reduction and management activities

See Guidance Notes:

Guidance Notes
1
Security and safety

A secure learning environment provides protection from threat, danger, injury or loss. A safe environment is free from physical or psychosocial harm.

National authorities have the duty to ensure security. This includes providing sufficient and good-quality policing and the deployment of troops where appropriate and necessary. If usual learning sites are insecure or not available, alternative safe and secure sites or modes of learning should be set up. Home schooling or distance learning may be options in such circumstances. In insecure situations, the community should advise on whether they wish learners to attend school. Security forces should never use educational facilities as temporary shelters.

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2
Emotional, physical and social well-being

Emotional, physical and social well-being depends on:

  • security, safety and protection;
  • health;
  • happiness and warmth in the relations between education providers and learners, and among learners.

From the earliest age, children’s development and learning are supported by their interactions with caring people in safe, secure and nurturing environments. Activities to ensure learners’ well-being focus on enhancing sound development, positive social interactions and good health. They encourage learners’ participation in decisions that affect them. By participating in problem-solving, decision-making and risk reduction, children and youth can feel less helpless and can contribute to their own well-being.

If parents are unable to provide for their children’s well-being at home, others need to help. This may include referrals to appropriate services if available.

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3
Protection

‘Protection’ means freedom from all forms of physical, emotional and social threat, abuse, exploitation and violence. Learners, teachers and other education personnel should be informed about and protected from dangers in and around the learning environment. Dangers include:

  • bullying;
  • sexual exploitation;
  • natural and environmental hazards;
  • arms, ammunition, landmines and unexploded ordnance;
  • armed personnel, cross re locations and other military threats, including abduction and recruitment;
  • political insecurity.

Risk assessments, including consultation with community members, learners, teachers and other education personnel, are important to understand protection needs and priorities. These assessments should take place regularly and should include analysis of relevant cultural and political factors.

When protection violations take place, they should be confidentially documented and reported, preferably with the assistance of people trained in human rights monitoring. Key information about the incident should be noted, including sex, age and whether the person was targeted on the basis of specific characteristics. Such information is important to identify patterns and may be needed to create effective interventions to address the problem. Responses to reported violations should also be documented, including referrals to health, protection and psychosocial service providers.

In environments where violence and other threats to the physical and psychosocial safety of learners, teachers and other education personnel are common, it is important to involve families and communities in promoting safety in the home and community. Activities may include:

  • information campaigns for parents and elders to reinforce positive methods for bringing up children including positive discipline practices;
  • outreach to police or other security forces to raise awareness of protection concerns in the community;
  • working with communities and relevant authorities to address specific protection concerns, such as organising escorts for learners going to and from classes.
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4
Gender-based violence

Gender-based violence particularly sexual violence, is a serious, life-threatening protection issue. It can affect men and boys, but gender-based violence most often targets women and girls. Education programmes should monitor and respond to issues of harassment and sexual exploitation. Parents, learners, teachers and other education personnel should agree on ways to reduce risks to children and youth on the way to and from and within the learning environment. These may include:

  • developing and publicly posting clear rules against sexual harassment, exploitation, abuse and other forms of gender-based violence;
  • including these rules in codes of conduct for teachers and other education personnel, who need to understand what behaviours are unacceptable;
  • increasing the number of adult women in the learning environment to protect and reassure female learners. Where there is not a balance between male and female teachers, women from the community can volunteer as classroom assistants to promote a more protective environment for children.

When gender-based violence takes place, confidential and safe reporting, complaint and response systems are important. These can be facilitated by national authorities or by an independent organisation knowledgeable about gender-based violence. Appropriate health, psychosocial, protection and judicial support should be available to survivors of gender-based violence in a well-coordinated referral system.

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5
Distance between learners and learning sites

The maximum distance between learners and their learning sites

should be de ned according to local and national standards. It is important to consider security, safety and accessibility concerns such as soldiers’ quarters, landmines and dense bush in the vicinity. Learners, parents and other community members should be consulted on the location of learning sites and potential dangers. Where distance to school is so far that it reduces access, subsidiary (or ‘satellite’ or ‘feeder’) classes at sites nearer to learners’ homes may be encouraged.

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6
Access routes

In order to ensure safe and secure access routes for all learners, teachers and education personnel, communities, including boys and girls of di erent age groups, should identify perceived threats and agree on measures to address them. For example, in areas where learners must walk to and from education facilities along poorly lit roads, safety can be improved by having adult escorts or by using reflectors or reflective tape on clothing and bags.

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7
Keeping education safe from attack

In some contexts, learners, teachers and education personnel are exposed to physical or psychosocial risks on their way to and from education facilities. Actions to reduce these risks include:

  • enriching the curriculum to include safety messages, psychosocial support and education on human rights, conflict resolution, peace-building and humanitarian law;
  • raising public awareness on the meaning and use of the Geneva Conventions and the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, which prohibit attacks against civilians (including students and teachers) and education buildings in times of war;
  • capacity building for government and military judicial systems, armed forces and armed groups in the basic principles of humanitarian law and its application to the protection of education;
  • reinforcing buildings or perimeter walls and use of security guards (paid or community volunteers);
  • on-site housing for teachers;
  • relocation of learning sites and threatened students, teachers and other education personnel;
  • setting up home- and community-based schools.

Depending on the context and security concerns, communities or community education committees may take responsibility for the protection of schools. For example, they can provide escorts or identify trusted community or religious leaders to teach in and support schools. In civil conflicts, community members may help promote negotiations with both sides of the conflict to develop codes of conduct that make schools and learning sites safe sanctuaries or ‘zones of peace’.

Attacks on schools and hospitals are one of the six grave violations prohibited under UN Security Council Resolution 1612 (2005). If attacks occur, they should be reported through the UN-led Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism.

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8
Training on psychosocial support and well-being

Teachers and other education personnel should receive training on providing psychosocial support to learners through:

  • structured learning;
  • use of child-friendly methods;
  • play and recreation;
  • teaching life skills;
  • referrals.

It is important to address the well-being of teachers and other education personnel. This will contribute to learners’ well-being and successful completion of formal or non-formal education programmes.

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9
Non-violent classroom management

According to the Dakar Framework, education should be conducted ‘in ways that promote mutual understanding, peace and tolerance, and that help to prevent violence and conflict’. To meet this goal, teachers need support in positive classroom management. This means ensuring that a learning environment promotes mutual understanding, peace and tolerance and provides skills to prevent violence and conflict. Positive reinforcement and a solid system of positive discipline are the foundations for establishing such an environment. They should replace corporal punishment, verbal abuse, humiliation and intimidation. Intimidation includes mental stress, violence, abuse and discrimination. These points should be included in teacher codes of conduct and addressed systematically in teacher training and supervision activities.

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10
Community participation

Communities should take a leading role in creating, sustaining and protecting the learning environment. Representatives of all vulnerable groups should participate in programme design. This increases community ownership of support to education.

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11
Disaster risk reduction and management

Learners, teachers and other education personnel can be trained to support disaster prevention and management activities. These may include:

  • the development and utilisation of emergency preparedness plans;
  • practice of simulation drills for expected and recurring disasters;
  • school structural and non-structural safety measures, such as school evacuation plans in earthquake-prone areas.

Community or school safety committees may need support to develop and lead the implementation of school disaster management or safety plans. Support includes help with assessing and prioritising risks, implementing physical and environmental protection strategies and developing procedures and skills for response preparedness.

Emergency preparedness plans, including school evacuation plans, should be developed and shared in ways that are accessible to all, including people who are illiterate and persons with physical, cognitive and mental disabilities.

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Supporting Resources

Supporting Resources
Training Material

ARC - Critical issue Module 5: Landmine awareness

Published by
Save the Children

The ARC resource pack provides information and training materials to strengthen individuals' capacity to address the causes of children's vulnerabilities, to build effective child protection systems for use in emergencies and long-term development, and to ensure that no activities inadvertently compromise children's rights or safety.

English
French
Spanish
Toolkit

Child Protection Minimum Standards Implementation Toolkit

Published by
Alliance for Child Protection in Humanitarian Action

To support you in this important effort, the CPMS Working Group has prepared the CPMS Implementation Toolkit. It contains essential information on how to promote and implement the CPMS in diverse humanitarian settings from refugee contexts to infectious disease outbreaks and beyond. 

English
Framework

Education in Emergencies - Child Protection Collaboration Framework

Published by
Global Education Cluster
Child Protection Area of Responsibility (CP AoR)

The CP-EiE Collaboration framework supports Education and CP coordination teams’ predictable and coherent collaboration throughout the Humanitarian Programme Cycle (HPC). At each step of the HPC, it provides steps to strengthen CP-EiE collaboration, promising collaboration practices from country coordination groups, and tools and resources to support collaboration.

English
French
Spanish
Manual/Handbook/Guide

Disaster and Emergency Preparedness: Guidance for Schools and Activity Guide

Published by
World Bank
,
International Finance Corp

This document is a resource for school administrators and teachers to serve as a basis for policy development. An accompanying Activity Guide serves as a resource for classroom activities and awareness-raising for students and communities.

English
Manual/Handbook/Guide

Guidelines for Child Friendly Spaces in Emergencies

Published by
Global Education Cluster
Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE)

The purpose of these principles is to give practical guidance to the field teams that establish CFSs in different types of emergencies and contexts.

English
Manual/Handbook/Guide

Guidelines on Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Emergency Settings

Published by
Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC)

The Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) issued these Guidelines to enable humanitarian actors to plan, establish and coordinate a set of minimum multi-sectoral responses to protect and improve peoples mental health and psychosocial well-being in the midst of an emergency.

Arabic
English
French
Spanish
Ukrainian
Romanian
Report

INEE Background Paper on Psychosocial Support and Social & Emotional Learning for Children & Youth

Published by
Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE)

The purpose of this paper is to clarify relevant terminologies and approaches relating to psychosocial well-being and social and emotional learning (SEL) in education in crisis affected contexts, and to explore how psychosocial support (PSS) and social and emotional learning relate to one another.

Arabic
English
French
Portuguese
Spanish
Manual/Handbook/Guide

INEE Guidance Note on Psychosocial Support

Published by
Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE)

The purpose of the INEE Guidance Note on Psychosocial Support is to clarify the importance of supporting the psychosocial wellbeing of children and youth, and to offer specific strategies for how to incorporate psychosocial support (PSS) into education responses.

Arabic
Chinese (Mandarin)
English
French
Portuguese
Spanish
Turkish
Toolkit

Keeping Children Safe: A Toolkit for Child Protection

Published by
The Keeping Children Safe Coalition

The Keeping Children Safe Coalition (KCS) toolkit is a complete package for people working in child protection across the world. The standards and exercises provide a sound basis for the development of effective measures to prevent and respond to violence: from awareness raising strategies to safeguarding measures.

English
Portuguese
Spanish
Arabic
Report

Landmine Awareness

Published by
UNESCO International Institute for Education Planning (UNESCO-IIEP)

This chapter focuses on ensuring that programmes provide information and knowledge that is reflected in safe behaviours with regard to landmines and unexploded ordnance (UXO), and securing community involvement in such programmes.

English
Manual/Handbook/Guide

Minimum Standards for Child Protection in Humanitarian Action (2019)

Published by
Alliance for Child Protection in Humanitarian Action

The 2019 Child Protection Minimum Standards handbook is a practical tool for humanitarian actors to join and lead child protection in humanitarian settings.

English
Arabic
French
Spanish
Manual/Handbook/Guide

Protecting Education In Countries Affected By Conflict

Published by
Education Above All (EAA)
Global Education Cluster
Save the Children

This booklet is one of a series of booklets prepared as part of the Protecting Education in Conflict-Affected Countries Programme, undertaken by Save the Children on behalf of the Global Education Cluster, in partnership with Education Above All, a Qatar-based non-governmental organisation.

English
Toolkit

Good School Toolkit

Published by
Raising Voices

Produced by Raising Voices, the Good School Toolkit aims to help teachers and administrators create a violence-free learning environment where students can develop their skills and confidence and become constructive, creative, and thoughtful members of their community.

English
Training Material

School Code of Conduct Teacher Training Manual

Published by
Save the Children

The School Code of Conduct (SCOC) training programme is designed to be used by Save the Children education staff to enable teachers and education personnel to implement governmental Teachers’ Codes of Conduct (TCOC) in schools. The training content relates to development and emergency contexts; to immediate and post conflict settings; and in response to natural disasters.

English
Toolkit

Toolkit for Promoting Gender Equality in Education

Published by
United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Office (UNESCO)

The Toolkit also integrates existing information and tools designed by other national or international organizations dedicated to promoting and providing training on gender equality in education and other sectors.

English
Report

What Works to Promote Children's Educational Access, Quality of Learning, and Wellbeing in Crisis

Published by
Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE)
New York University (NYU)
UK Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office (FCDO)

This study is a rigorous review of evidence found in the literature that shows which interventions promote educational access, quality of learning, and wellbeing among children who live in crisis-affected areas, and those in settings where a crisis has just ended.

English
Manual/Handbook/Guide

Youth in Action Against Violence in Schools

Published by
Plan International

This creative, fun and field friendly manual was designed by young people, for young people, as part of Plan International's "Learn Without Fear" campaign. This manual is designed for use by peer educators, youth groups, school classes, students' committees, councils and clubs.

English

Indicators

Untitled Spreadsheet
INEE Domain INEE Standard Indicator/Program Requirements Clarification Numerator Denominator Target Disaggregation Source of Indicator Source of Data Available Tool Crisis Phase
Access and Learning Environment Equal Access (A&L Std 1)

All individuals have access to quality and relevant education opportunities.
2.1 Net attendance rate Number of crisis-affected school-age children who attended school during the previous academic week Number of crisis-affected school-age children 100% Level of education
Gender
Ethnicity
Mother tongue
Wealth quintile
Disability
Displacement status
As relevant
OCHA Indicator Registry Government or cluster reporting, school or household-based surveys, M&E mechanisms, school records DHS All stages
2.2 Percentage of students who meet minimum proficiency levels in reading and mathematics, and/or demonstrate adequate progress in academic, vocational, and/or social and emotional learning (SEL) skills What defines adequate progress in learning outcomes depends on many factors, such as emergency context, age group, and program aims. This indicator is one that will need to be contextualized according to identified factors. Number of students who meet minimum proficiency levels in reading and mathematics, and/or demonstrate adequate progress in academic, vocational, and/or SEL skills Number of students 100% Level of education
Gender
Ethnicity
Mother tongue
Wealth quintile
Disability
Displacement status
As relevant
New Learning outcome measures INEE Measurement Library Once program implementation has begun
Protection & Well-being (A&L Std 2)

Learning environments are secure and safe, and promote the protection and the psychosocial well-being of learners, teachers, and other education personnel.
2.3 Percentage of targeted learning spaces featuring psychosocial support (PSS) activities for children that fulfil at least three out of the four following attributes: a) structured, b) goal-oriented, c) evidence-informed, d) targeted and tailored to different sub-groups of vulnerable children This indicator reflects the provision of holistic PSS services to children in need, as opposed to "shallow," unstructured activities that are unlikely to yield outcome-level results. The PSS intervention will have to feature at least three of the four following attributes: a) structured, b) goal-oriented, c) evidence-informed, d) targeted and tailored to different sub-groups of vulnerable children. Number of targeted learning spaces featuring PSS activities for children that fulfil at least three of the four following attributes: a) structured, b) goal-oriented, c) evidence-informed, d) targeted and tailored to different sub-groups of vulnerable children Number of targeted learning spaces 100% Could be disaggregated by a), b), c), and d)

Formal vs non-formal
New Program documentation, school policies, school observations. Figures provided can be based on surveys or estimates. Reference should be made to in-country standards for provision of PSS services, or, if the latter do not exist, refer to INEE standards and guidelines. Tool required All stages
2.4 Percentage of targeted learning spaces with disaster risk reduction (DRR) processes/measures in place Existence of up-to-date school-level contingency/emergency preparedness plans, or conduction of simulation drills for example Number of targeted learning spaces adopting and operationalizing DRR policies/practices Number of targeted learning spaces 100% Formal vs non-formal OCHA Indicator Registry Program documentation, school policies, school observations Tool required All stages
2.5 Percentage of children, teachers, and other staff who report feeling safe in school and on the way to/from school Number of children, teachers, and other staff who report feeling safe in school and on the way to/from school Number of children, teachers, and other staff in school 100% Children/teachers/other staff
Level of education
Gender
Ethnicity
Mother tongue
Wealth quintile
Disability
Displacement status
As relevant
New Survey of students and staff Tool required All stages
Facilities & Service (A&L Std 3)

Education facilities promote the safety and well-being of learners, teachers, and other education personnel and are linked to health, nutrition, psychosocial, and protection services.
2.6 Percentage of targeted learning spaces that meet EiE access, quality, and safety standards for infrastructure Number of targeted learning spaces meeting EiE access, quality, and safety standards for infrastructure Number of targeted learning spaces 100% Formal vs non-formal OCHA Indicator Registry Learning space inventories, program documentation, cluster reporting, EMIS Guidance notes on safer school construction All stages
2.7 Percentage of learning spaces with gender- and disability-sensitive WASH facilities Number of learning spaces with gender- and disability-sensitive WASH facilities Number of targeted learning spaces 100% Formal vs non-formal OCHA Indicator Registry Learning space inventories, program documentation, cluster reporting, EMIS UNRWA Education in Emergencies Indicator Bank, page 19 All stages
2.8 Percentage of targeted learning spaces that offer school meals Number of targeted learning spaces that offer school meals Number of targeted learning spaces 100% Formal vs non-formal New Program documentation No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
2.9 Percentage of targeted learning spaces that offer referrals to specialized health, psychosocial, and protection services Number of targeted learning spaces that offer referrals to specialized health, psychosocial, and protection services Number of targeted learning spaces 100% Formal vs non-formal New Program documentation No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages