Community Participation Standard 2: Resources

Community resources are identified, mobilised and used to implement age-appropriate learning opportunities.

Key Actions

Communities, education personnel and learners identify and mobilise local resources to strengthen access to quality education

See Guidance Notes:

Education authorities, the local community and humanitarian stakeholders recognise existing skills and knowledge and design education programmes to maximise the use of these capacities

See Guidance Notes:

National authorities, the local community and humanitarian stakeholders use community resources to develop, adapt and deliver education that incorporates disaster risk reduction and conflict mitigation

See Guidance Notes:

Guidance Notes
1
Community Resources

Community resources include human, intellectual, linguistic, monetary and material resources existing in the community. When designing and planning education responses, locally available resources should be identified and analysed to determine how they may contribute to education.

Community resources do not replace the legal responsibilities of national authorities. Community resources can improve the safety, access and quality of the teaching and learning. Contributions to the physical environment include material and labour support for the construction, maintenance and repair of early childhood development centres, schools and other learning spaces. Contributions to promoting protection and emotional, physical and social well-being may include psychosocial support for learners and teachers, facilitators and caregivers. Teacher motivation may be improved through resources mobilised for salaries and other forms of compensation. Records of resource mobilisation should be kept for purposes of transparency and accountability. Monitoring must ensure that children are not exploited by carrying out physical labour beyond their capacities.

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2
Promoting Access and Security

Education authorities, the local community and humanitarian stakeholders should encourage community members to identify and help vulnerable children and youth to attend school and access other learning activities regularly. Examples may include women’s and youth groups providing appropriate clothing for children from the poorest families or food to child-headed families. Community members should work with education authorities to ensure that schools, early childhood centres and other learning spaces are safe and secure places for children and youth. They can organise safe access and transportation and support outreach to isolated and remote areas. Physical barriers should be removed to promote accessibility for learners with disabilities. Women can serve as classroom assistants or provide security from harassment to encourage the attendance of girls and learners with disabilities. When youth cannot attend classes with younger children for cultural or protection reasons, the community can advocate for and design nonformal education programmes such as peer education, technical and vocational education and training, and small business development training. Community resources should be used to develop, adapt and share information on disaster risk reduction education and community response preparedness.

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3
Building for the Long Term

Education personnel and communities should participate in trainings on roles and responsibilities for the long term. These may include trainings on resource mobilisation and management, the maintenance of facilities, disability awareness and special measures to ensure the participation of children and youth.

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4
Recognition of Community Contributions

All planning, programming and reporting should incorporate information on the contribution of communities. Community contributions to educational (re)construction can be physical, such as building materials. They may be qualitative, meaning they cannot be measured with numbers, such as local skills. A strong community contribution indicates ownership and helps to ensure long-term support. However, continued external support should not be dependent upon such community contributions. Legal responsibility for education lies with the national authorities.

The participation and contribution of youth in peer education, community mobilisation and community development initiatives should be encouraged and recognised. The participation of young people is particularly important in the design and needs assessment stages.

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5
Local Capacity

The development, adaptation and delivery of education for disaster risk reduction and conflict mitigation should draw upon and strengthen positive local coping strategies and capacities.

Unequal access to resources and participation by different groups within the community may affect education interventions and increase exclusion or division. Individual or group contributors should not be favoured in education plans or programmes to the detriment of those who cannot contribute. Those who choose not to contribute should not be discriminated against.

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Supporting Resources

Supporting Resources
Manual/Handbook/Guide

Bias in Targeting Criteria

Published by
Transparency International

From Transparency International's new Handbook 'Preventing Corruption in Humanitarian Operation,' this section assists the user in ensuring that resources are not diverted or subject to bias, discrimination, or other forms of corruption. This is very practical guidance that should be considered in the planning phase of an intervention.

English
Manual/Handbook/Guide

INEE Good Practice Guide: Assessing Resource Needs

Published by
Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE)

To ensure the effectiveness of such programs, emergency education assessments must include not only the crisis-affected community, but the local government and NGOs working on both education and non-education issues

English
Manual/Handbook/Guide

Minimum Economic Recovery Standards

Published by
SEEP Network

The Minimum Economic Recovery Standards are the internationally recognized consensus on best practices for building economic resilience for crisis-affected communities.

English
French
Spanish
Arabic

Indicators

Untitled Spreadsheet
INEE Domain INEE Standard Indicator/Program Requirements Clarification Numerator Denominator Target Disaggregation Source of Indicator Source of Data Available Tool Crisis Phase
Foundational Standards Community Participation Participation (FDN/Community Participation Std 1)

Community members participate actively, transparently, and without discrimination in analysis, planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of education responses.
1.1 Percentage of parents actively participating in the conception and implementation of education in emergencies services Number of parents consulted Number of parents To be defined by program Gender Based on OCHA Indicator Registry Program documentation No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
1.2 Percentage of parents satisfied with the quality and appropriateness of response at the end of the project Number of parents satisfied with the quality and appropriateness of response at the end of the project Number of parents 100% NA Based on OCHA Indicator Registry Program documentation Tool required All stages
Resources (FDN/Community Participation Std 2)

Community resources are identified, mobilized and used to implement age-appropriate learning opportunities.
1.3 Analysis of opportunity to use local resources is carried out and acted on Scale 1-5 (1 = low, 5 = high) 5 NA New Program/procurement documentation Tool required All stages
Coordination Coordination (FDN/Coordination Std 1)

Coordination mechanisms for education are in place to support stakeholders working to ensure access to and continuity of quality education.
1.4 Percentage of regular relevant coordination mechanism (i.e., Education Cluster, EiEWG, LEGs) meetings attended by program team Number of regular relevant coordination mechanism (i.e.; Education Cluster, EiE Working Group (WG), Local Education Group (LEG) meetings attended by program team Number of regular relevant coordination mechanism (i.e. Education Cluster, EiEWG, LEGs) meetings held during organizational presence 100% NA New Meeting records No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
Analysis Assessment (FDN/Analysis Std 1)

Timely education assessments of the emergency situation are conducted in a holistic, transparent, and participatory manner.
1.5 Percentage of education needs assessments, carried out by the relevant coordinating body the program has participated in These include initial rapid and ongoing/rolling assessments Number of assessments organization contributed to Number of possible assessments organization could have contributed to 100% NA New Assessment records No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
Response Strategies (FDN/Analysis Std 2)

Inclusive education response strategies include a clear description of the context, barriers to the right to education, and strategies to overcome those barriers.
1.6 Strength of analysis of context, of barriers to the right to education, and of strategies to overcome those barriers Scale 1-5 (1 = low, 5 = high) 5 NA New Program documentation Tool required All stages
Monitoring (FDN/Analysis Std 3)

Regular monitoring of education response activities and the evolving learning needs of the affected population is carried out.
1.7 Percentage of education needs assessments carried out in defined time period Frequency to be defined by organization. Monitoring measures should be relevant to the desired program outcomes Number of education needs assessments carried out per year Number of education needs assessments required per year 100% NA New M&E plans and results No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient During program implementation
Evaluation (FDN/Analysis Std 4)

Systematic and impartial evaluations improve education response
activities and enhance accountability.
1.8 Number of evaluations carried out Number of evaluations carried out NA NA New M&E plans and results No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient Program completion
1.9 Percentage of evaluations shared with parents Number of evaluations shared with parents Number of evaluations 100% NA New M&E plans and results No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient Program completion