Analysis Standard 3: Monitoring

Regular monitoring of education response activities and the evolving learning needs of the affected population is carried out.

Key Actions

There are effective systems for regular monitoring of education response activities in emergency situations through to recovery

See Guidance Notes:

Education response activities are monitored to ensure the safety and security of all learners, teachers and other education personnel

See Guidance Notes:

Vulnerable people are regularly consulted, trained in data collection methodologies and involved in monitoring activities

See Guidance Notes:

Disaggregated education data are systematically and regularly collected and inform education responses

See Guidance Notes:

Education data are analysed and shared at regular intervals with all relevant stakeholders, especially affected communities and vulnerable groups

See Guidance Notes:

Guidance Notes
1
Monitoring

Monitoring measures whether programmes are meeting the changing educational needs of the population and how they are responding to the evolving context. It:

  • ensures that interventions are relevant and responsive;
  • identifies possibilities for improvement;
  • contributes to conflict mitigation and disaster risk reduction;
  • promotes accountability.

The planned and unplanned impacts of education programmes should be monitored to ensure that they do not unintentionally increase marginalisation, discrimination, conflict or natural hazards. Unannounced monitoring visits can improve the validity of monitoring data. The design of monitoring will determine how often different types of data are collected, according to need, and the resources required for data collection and processing. Many types of information can be collected from schools and other education programmes on a sample basis, giving quick indications of needs and problems. Such information may include:

  • disaggregated data on enrollment and drop-out;
  • whether students eat before attending school;
  • availability of textbooks and teaching and learning materials.

Monitoring of out-of-school children and youth and their reasons for not enrolling or attending can be done through visits to a small random sample of households. During monitoring, it is important to listen directly to the voices of women and vulnerable groups. If data on ethnicity or other social groupings are too sensitive or difficult to gather on a comprehensive basis, sample surveys and qualitative feedback, such as informal conversations, may indicate problems specific to particular groups.

Monitoring and reporting systems are needed for violations of the safety and well-being of learners, teachers and other education personnel, and for the state of education infrastructure. This is particularly important where there is risk of armed attack, abduction, child recruitment to armed forces and armed groups, gender-based violence or natural disasters. For this aspect of monitoring, education stakeholders may need to liaise with local and national authorities or UN and non-government agencies for security, justice, protection and human rights. It is important to take into account the sensitivity of the reported information. Ongoing education response activities should be modified if necessary, according to the results of monitoring.

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2
People involved in monitoring

People involved in monitoring need to be able to collect information from all groups in the affected population in a culturally sensitive manner. It is important that the team is gender-balanced, fluent in local language(s) and trained in data collection. Local practices may require that women or minority groups be consulted separately by individuals who are trusted. Representatives of the affected community, including young people, should be involved as early as possible in monitoring the effectiveness of education programmes that directly affect their lives. This is particularly important in non-formal education programmes for specific groups, such as adolescent girls or learners with disabilities.

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3
An education management information system

An education management information system, normally managed by national authorities, compiles and analyses education data. If an education management information system exists for the context, it may have been disrupted by the emergency or may need to be upgraded. The development or rehabilitation of a national education management information system or equivalent may require capacity building at national, regional and local levels. Capacity building supports relevant people to collect, manage, interpret, use and share available information. It should start as early as possible, with the aim of having a functioning system, ideally housed with a government body, by the recovery phase.

Compatible software and hardware for an education management information system are essential. National and local education o ces and other education sub-sectors, such as national training institutes, should have compatible equipment to facilitate the exchange of information. Mobile phones equipped with special software can improve data collection, but lack of technology should not prevent data collection from under-resourced areas.

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4
Monitoring of learners

Monitoring of learners should take place whenever possible during their learning and after they complete or leave a course. Monitoring through quantitative and qualitative assessments can cover, for example:

  • gross and fine motor development, cognitive and socio-emotional development in very young children;
  • the retention of literacy and numeracy skills;
  • awareness and application of key life skills;
  • access to post-literacy reading materials.

For vocational education, monitoring should keep track of employment opportunities for learners. Post-programme monitoring of learners provides valuable feedback for programme design.

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Resources

Related Resources
Manual/Handbook/Guide

Accelerated Education Programme Monitoring & Evaluation Toolkit

Published by
Accelerated Education Working Group (AEWG)

The purpose of this toolkit is to support the design and implementation of M&E Frameworks for specific accelerated education programmes in order to support learning and accountability.

Arabic
English
French
Spanish
Manual/Handbook/Guide

Bias in Targeting Criteria

Published by
Transparency International

From Transparency International's new Handbook 'Preventing Corruption in Humanitarian Operation,' this section assists the user in ensuring that resources are not diverted or subject to bias, discrimination, or other forms of corruption. This is very practical guidance that should be considered in the planning phase of an intervention.

English
Report

Data Collection on Education Systems: Definitions, Explanations and Instructions

Published by
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Office (UNESCO)

The objective of the UIS/OECD/EUROSTAT data collection on education statistics is to provide internationally comparable data on key aspects of education systems, specifically on the participation and completion of education programmes, as well as the cost and type of resources dedicated to education.

English
Framework

INEE Minimum Standards Indicator Framework

Published by
Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE)

This framework provides a way for education in emergency (EiE) stakeholders to demonstrate alignment with and progress towards the INEE Minimum Standards.

English
Arabic
French
Spanish
Portuguese
Manual/Handbook/Guide

INEE Technical Note on Measurement for Education during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Published by
Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE)

The Technical Note on Measurement intends to supplement version one of the INEE Technical Note on Education During COVID-19, and specifically focuses on distance education programs in light of the pandemic. This targeted technical guidance has been drafted in response to monitoring, evaluation, and learning needs identified by INEE members.

Arabic
English
French
Portuguese
Spanish
Manual/Handbook/Guide

Learning to live together: Design, monitoring and evaluation of education for life skills, citizenship, peace and human rights

Published by
United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Office (UNESCO)
,
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ)

Learning to Live Together: Design, Monitoring and Evaluation of Education for Life Skills, Citizenship, Peace and Human Rights. The guide focuses on the theme of ‘learning to live together’, which is one of four competencies identified as important by the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-first Century.

English
Manual/Handbook/Guide

Minimum Economic Recovery Standards

Published by
SEEP Network

The Minimum Economic Recovery Standards are the internationally recognized consensus on best practices for building economic resilience for crisis-affected communities.

English
French
Spanish
Arabic
Toolkit

Monitoring Children's Rights: A Toolkit for Community-Based Organizations

Published by
Canadian Coalition for the Rights of Children

This toolkit has been designed for community leaders, local children's rights advocates and staff of local child-serving and child-led institutions and agencies to help mobilise and coordinate resources in communities to develop effective monitoring practices for the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.

English
Manual/Handbook/Guide

Monitoring Distance Learning During School Closures

Published by
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)

Key considerations and question bank (example questions) for monitoring the reach and effectiveness of distance and blended learning modalities, through surveys of parents, students and teachers.

English
Book/eBook

Monitoring, evaluation, learning and feedback

Published by
Save the Children

This chapter shows you how to put children at the heart of your monitoring, evaluation, learning and feedback systems. You need to know if and how you are making a real difference. Monitoring, evaluation, learning and feedback will help you to assess and make any necessary changes to your work in order to improve your effectiveness.

English

Indicators

Untitled Spreadsheet
INEE Domain INEE Standard Indicator/Program Requirements Clarification Numerator Denominator Target Disaggregation Source of Indicator Source of Data Available Tool Crisis Phase
Foundational Standards Community Participation Participation (FDN/Community Participation Std 1)

Community members participate actively, transparently, and without discrimination in analysis, planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of education responses.
1.1 Percentage of parents actively participating in the conception and implementation of education in emergencies services Number of parents consulted Number of parents To be defined by program Gender Based on OCHA Indicator Registry Program documentation No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
1.2 Percentage of parents satisfied with the quality and appropriateness of response at the end of the project Number of parents satisfied with the quality and appropriateness of response at the end of the project Number of parents 100% NA Based on OCHA Indicator Registry Program documentation Tool required All stages
Resources (FDN/Community Participation Std 2)

Community resources are identified, mobilized and used to implement age-appropriate learning opportunities.
1.3 Analysis of opportunity to use local resources is carried out and acted on Scale 1-5 (1 = low, 5 = high) 5 NA New Program/procurement documentation Tool required All stages
Coordination Coordination (FDN/Coordination Std 1)

Coordination mechanisms for education are in place to support stakeholders working to ensure access to and continuity of quality education.
1.4 Percentage of regular relevant coordination mechanism (i.e., Education Cluster, EiEWG, LEGs) meetings attended by program team Number of regular relevant coordination mechanism (i.e.; Education Cluster, EiE Working Group (WG), Local Education Group (LEG) meetings attended by program team Number of regular relevant coordination mechanism (i.e. Education Cluster, EiEWG, LEGs) meetings held during organizational presence 100% NA New Meeting records No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
Analysis Assessment (FDN/Analysis Std 1)

Timely education assessments of the emergency situation are conducted in a holistic, transparent, and participatory manner.
1.5 Percentage of education needs assessments, carried out by the relevant coordinating body the program has participated in These include initial rapid and ongoing/rolling assessments Number of assessments organization contributed to Number of possible assessments organization could have contributed to 100% NA New Assessment records No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient All stages
Response Strategies (FDN/Analysis Std 2)

Inclusive education response strategies include a clear description of the context, barriers to the right to education, and strategies to overcome those barriers.
1.6 Strength of analysis of context, of barriers to the right to education, and of strategies to overcome those barriers Scale 1-5 (1 = low, 5 = high) 5 NA New Program documentation Tool required All stages
Monitoring (FDN/Analysis Std 3)

Regular monitoring of education response activities and the evolving learning needs of the affected population is carried out.
1.7 Percentage of education needs assessments carried out in defined time period Frequency to be defined by organization. Monitoring measures should be relevant to the desired program outcomes Number of education needs assessments carried out per year Number of education needs assessments required per year 100% NA New M&E plans and results No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient During program implementation
Evaluation (FDN/Analysis Std 4)

Systematic and impartial evaluations improve education response
activities and enhance accountability.
1.8 Number of evaluations carried out Number of evaluations carried out NA NA New M&E plans and results No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient Program completion
1.9 Percentage of evaluations shared with parents Number of evaluations shared with parents Number of evaluations 100% NA New M&E plans and results No tool required; INEE MS and indicator definitions sufficient Program completion